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Human Relations Theorists and Their Theories (after Hawthorne) (before beginning, take SAQ 1(pp. 103-104) and score (p. 106). Douglas McGregor (1906-1964) Believed organization functioning depended on beliefs of managers and their assumptions of human nature and human behavior.
(before beginning, take SAQ 1(pp. 103-104) and score (p. 106)
Believed organization functioning depended on beliefs of managers and their assumptions of human nature and human behavior
Theory X managers – assume most people are lazy, dislike work, need carrots/sticks to perform; they are immature, need direction, are incapable of taking responsibility
How would a Theory X manager treat employees, motivate them, reward/punish them?
Theory Y managers assume that people have a psychological need to work, want achievement, have the ability for creative problem solving, will seek out and accept responsibility.
How would a Theory Y manager treat employees, motivate them, reward/punish them?
Theory X managers tend to blame problems on employees (like some instructors blame problems on students!)
Theory Y managers take responsibility for problems “no bad troops, only bad officers”)
Theory X/Y is oversimplified; people may react differently in different situations; it’s not human nature nor personality that is at issue.
The key word is POTENTIAL; people are capable of much more than they are given credit for.
How might this theory affect your management of employees?
“the father of humanist psychology”
Developed a “hierarchy of needs”
Lower-level needs (physiological, safety) are stronger, and must be met first, then higher-level needs (social and self-esteem) may be met.
These needs are “deficiency needs” = only unmet needs motivate.
(The highest order need, self-actualization, is a growth need. The process of satisfying this need actually increases rather than decreases motivation.)
The author of the “two-factor” theory of employee motivation.
His 1968 article (“One more time: how do you motivate employees?”) discusses KITA management.
KITA = Kick in the Ass – KITA can be positive or negative – NEITHER is effective (Negative KITA is rape; Positive KITA is seduction)
Herzberg said that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposite – the opposite of satisfaction is the absence of satisfaction (you are either satisfied or you’re not)
The factors that lead to job satisfaction/ motivation are different from the factors that lead to job satisfaction:
Of all factors contributing to job satisfaction, 81% were motivators
Of all factors contributing to dissatisfaction,, 69% involved hygiene factors
H believed that job enrichment adds to motivators
Can you see the connections between their assumptions about managers and about employees?
Studies employees in industrial firms
Categorized management along a line from System 1 to System 4:
System 1: exploitative, authoritarian; management by fear, coercion; top-down communication; no shared decision-making; superiors and subordinates psychologically far apart
Climate: fear, intimidation, dissatisfaction
Benevolent authoritarian – carrot rather than stick; subordinates still subservient; information flowing upwards is “what boss wants to hear;” major policy decisions made at the top
Carrot/stick both used; management tries to talk with employees; communication flows both ways, but is still limited upwards; important decisions still top-down
Communication open, extensive; ideas and opinions solicited; employees feel free to express ideas
Decision-making participative; employees have influence
Information flows freely; flexible channels of communications in all directions
Performance goals developed through participative management; organization members motivated
(Take SAQ 2 at this point and discuss its relationship to Likert’s theory)
Much of the study in organizaitonal communications from the 1960s through the 1980s rested on the belief that System 4 was the ideal climate for organizational effectiveness.
Is this true? Always? Are there circumstances in which System 4 is not optimal for communication? For effectiveness?
Which Style would you like to “live in”?
Later, Likert postulated System 5 for the future: all authority/ hierarchy will disappear
Basic principle behind work of McGregor/Likert: effective modern organizations must see themselves as interacting groups of people with supporting relationships to each other
How could this be applied to your practice?
Nature of the work
Job satisfaction seems to increase with age – why?
No clear results on relationship between job satisfaction and gender or race, there are clear differences in job satisfction across countries (Mexican workers more satisfied than American) (think “expectation”)
34% of Americans experience a considerable amount of work-family conflict. This negatively affects job satisfaction. Men have more problems in this area than women.
There is small correlation between pay level and satisfaction (see Herzberg)
Job stressors have an effect on satisfaction:
Control over decisions
Work schedule flexibility (people like longer shifts with more days off; 4 10-hour days vs. 5 8-hour days)
Physical health/psychological well-being
It seems clear that job experiences affect health.
Studies consistently find that job satisfaction and life satisfaction are moderately and positively correlated.
Hiring employees – what kind should you look for?
Motivating employees – what will you use to keep people interested?
How can you reduce absenteeism, turnover?