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The Middle East. Empire, War, Independence, Conflict. Where is the Middle East?. Where is the Middle East?. Where is the Middle East?. History of the Middle East: The Ancient Empires . Babylon (609BC-539BC) Persia (550BC-330BC) Greece (332BC-68 BC) Rome (68 BC- 476AD)

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The middle east

The Middle East

Empire, War, Independence, Conflict





History of the middle east the ancient empires
History of the Middle East: The Ancient Empires

  • Babylon (609BC-539BC)

  • Persia (550BC-330BC)

  • Greece (332BC-68 BC)

  • Rome (68 BC- 476AD)

  • Byzantine (330 AD-1453AD)







Israel1
ISRAEL

  • Israel’s Flag was adopted in 1948

  • 1st Introduced in 1891

    • Represented the Zionist movement

  • Six Pointed Star of David is and ancient Jewish Symbol

  • Blue and White stripes refer to Jewish prayer shawls.


Regathering begins
Regathering Begins

  • (1860) MishkenotSha’anaim, first Jewish neighborhood built outside Jerusalem walls.

  • (1881) Widespread pogroms (violent mob attack against Jews) in Russia reinforce Jewish national awakening

  • (1894) Theodor Herzl attends the trial of Alfred Dreyfus in Paris

    • Witnesses French anti-Semitism

  • (1896) Herzl’ DerJudenstaat(The Jewish State) published.

  • (1897) Herzl convenes 1stZinonist Congress in Basel, Switerland.


Zionist movement
Zionist Movement

  • (1916) Sykes-Picot Agreement signed by Britain, France, and Russia

    • Secret Wartime agreement between Britain and France to divide the land of the Ottoman Empire after WWI

    • Among the terms, establishment of Arab state in “Southern Palestine”

    • Arabs angry, Britain ruled Palestine like a colony until 1948.

  • (1917) Balfour Declaration

    • Short note from Britain’s foreign secretary

    • Establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.

    • Declaration sped Jewish immigration

    • Together w/ Sykes-Picot it laid the modern foundation for Middle East Conflict


Post wwi
POST WWI

  • (1919) Versailles Peace Conference

    • Jewish-Arab accord: Jews claim Jewish home in Palestine; Arabs claim Arab state from Iraq to Yemen (Excluding Palestine).

  • (1920) San Remo Conference/ League of Nations 1922

    • Granted British Mandate over Palestine with aim of encouraging immigration and settlement of Jews and establishment of national home.

    • Arab riots in Palestine-Rioters demand end to Jewish migration.

  • (1921) British decide to install Abdullah in “Trans-Jordan”, hajAmin al-Husseini appointed grand mufti of Jerusalem

  • (1930) British White Paper limits Jewish immigration to Palestine

  • (1936-1939) Arab Riots continue, murder 500 Jews, THOUSANDS of Arabs


Establishing a jewish state
Establishing a Jewish State

  • (1937) British Peel Commission asserts that Jewish national home cannot be built in Palestine, Recommends repartition of Palestine into small Jewish state (5% of total area) and Arab state in remainder.

    • Peel Plan is rejected by both Arabs and Jews.

    • Britain Halts immigration to Palestine.

  • (1939) British blockade Palestine against “illegal Jewish immigration”

  • (1941) Huesseni relocates to Berlin with intention of creating “fascist” Arab state. Pushes for end of Jews and terrorism against who?

    • Moderate Arabs

  • (1945) Jews are liberated from death camps


End of british rule in palestine
End of British Rulein Palestine

  • The British Mandate over Palestine ends in 1947

    • Britain withdrawls

    • UN announces resolution to partition Palestine

    • A Jewish State and an Arab State

      • Jerusalem would be a separate entity administered by the UN

  • Impact of UN Resolution 181?

    • Palestinian Jews approve, Palestinian Arabs reject along with the Neighboring Arab states.

    • Tension turns to violence.


Declaration of statehood
Declaration ofStatehood

  • (MAY 14 1948) David Ben Gurion becomes Israel’s 1st Prime Minister with the Declaration of Israeli Independence

    • The U.S. and USSR recognize it quickly.

  • IMPACT:

    • Palestinian Arabs with 5 other Arab states launch a war that Israel ultimately wins

    • 700,000 Palestinians fled from their lands.

    • Israel expands its borders, Egypt occupies Gaza Strip, Jordan occupies W. Bank and E. Jerusalem.

    • (1948-1952) 800,000 Jews are expelled from Arab states, absorbed by Israel. 650,000 Palestinians flee and confined to refugee camps.


Israel conflicts arise
Israel:Conflicts Arise

  • 1951- Yasser Arafat begins organizing Palestinians in Cairo.

  • 1956- Sinai Campaign- Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal. Egypt blocks Israeli shipping.

    • Israel Captures Sinai Peninsula and destroys terrorist bases on Gaza

    • U.S./Soviet pressures Israel to withdraw without a treaty

    • Eisenhower guarantees protection of Israeli shipping