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Light/white color – warmer in temperature than dark/red color
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Light/white color – warmer in temperature than dark/red color

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  1. Sompong. Thammathaworn Institute of Science Suranaree University of TechnologyNakhon Ratchasima 30000 sompong@.sut.ac.th

  2. Budburst observation of AcaciahamandianaGagnep (MIMOSOIDEAE) at Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand2006

  3. Tokyo, Japan Light/white color – warmer in temperature than dark/red color Concentration of light/white color in the urban area Heat island effect = with urban areas tend to have warmer temperature than the rural areas

  4. แผนที่กรุงเทพฯ ภาพจากดาวเทียม

  5. Nakhon Ratchasima province is the largest city in the North Eastern of Thailand, Their population increase up over 2.5 million in 2005

  6. Budburst observation of Cassia fistula L. (CAESALPINOIDEAE) at Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand2006 Nakhon Ratchasima province

  7. Phenology Seasonal/ climatic changes Living organisms RESPONSE TO Sunlight Precipitation Temperature

  8. The plant development response to seasons and climatic changes. The warmer of air temperature stimulate the occurrence of budburst. The timing of budburst is influenced by temperature. Its detection can be used to examine regional and global vegetation patterns and vegetation responses to climate change.

  9. Heat island effect from urban areas tend to have warmer temperature than those of the rural areas. Nakhon Ratchasima province is the largest city in the North Eastern of Thailand, Their population increase up over 2.5 million in 2005

  10. Urban vegetation phenology Increasing temperature in Urban areas RESPONSE TO Native, deciduous Tree species Acacia harmandiana Monument of Thao Suranari Population: 2.5 Million

  11. What is budburst? Budburst is tiny leaves emerging from inside the bud. The timing of budburst is influenced by temperature.

  12. Example of budburst (Leaf bud AcaciahamandianaGagnep) Dormant winter bud open. This is the budburststage. This is an example of a dormant winter bud. (before budburst)

  13. Research Objectives 1) To confirm budurst period of A. harmandiana Gagnep at Nakhon Ratchasima in 2006to 2005. 2) To compare the result of investigations(budbursts period and air temperature) of the two continuous years (2005 and 2006).

  14. Methodology The research methods keep following the budburst protocol of GUPY project, which comprise 1) species selection, 2) site selection, 3) tree identification, 4) labeling, tree location (GPS), 5) budburst measurements (Record the date when budburst occurs in 3 separate branches of the tree).

  15. Materials and Tools • Binoculars • GPS to locate trees • Compass (optional) • 50 m tape (optional) • Clinometer (optional) 

  16. Species selection 1) Native 2) Deciduous 3) Exists throughout the urban center to rural periphery

  17. Site Selection Locations: • School ground, bus stop, park, backyard, etc. • Located in almost the same elevation • Located in areas • that do not receive • irrigation & fertilization

  18. Measurements • Start monitoring at least 2 weeks prior to anticipated budburst. • Visit the site at least twice a week to start looking at the buds of the trees. • Visit the siteeverydayonce you seesignsof bud swelling. • Record the dateof budburst occurrence when budburst is observed inthree separate branches.

  19. Tree Selection Identify trees before leaf fall

  20. Tree Selection Select 10 trees (same species) Inaccessible:Use Binoculars Mature & Accessible trees

  21. Tree Selection Mark/ tag trees before budburst measurement

  22. Tree Selection Tree Location (GPS):Latitude,Longitude,Elevation

  23. Measurements Time of measurement:Any time during the day (consistency not required) • Three (3) separate branches • Consistency not required • No tagging of branches Only tag the trees

  24. Time line Date of budburst Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 (Anticipated budburst) • 2 weeks in advance • Visit 2x a week • Actual budburst • 3 branches • Record the date Bud swelling Visit everyday until the actual budburst

  25. Climate of 2006

  26. Conclusion A. harmandiana Gagnep start their budburst period earlier than in the year of 2005. Where as the temperature of budburst period was 25o C – 36o C. The period of budburst was 16 days which longer than the period of budburst in the year of 2005 (13 days).The air temperature during budburst period was more varied throughout the day.