Nonvascular plants – Division Bryophyta, Hepatophyta, Anthocerotophyta General characteristics : 1) dominant gametoph - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Nonvascular plants – Division Bryophyta, Hepatophyta, Anthocerotophyta General characteristics : 1) dominant gametoph PowerPoint Presentation
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Nonvascular plants – Division Bryophyta, Hepatophyta, Anthocerotophyta General characteristics : 1) dominant gametoph

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Nonvascular plants – Division Bryophyta, Hepatophyta, Anthocerotophyta General characteristics : 1) dominant gametoph
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Nonvascular plants – Division Bryophyta, Hepatophyta, Anthocerotophyta General characteristics : 1) dominant gametoph

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  1. Nonvascular plants – Division Bryophyta, Hepatophyta, Anthocerotophyta General characteristics: 1) dominant gametophyte 2) no true vascular tissue 3) no roots 4) sperm must swim through external water to reach an egg

  2. Mosses - familiar moss plant is a mature gametophyte (all cells have haploid nuclei) - includes stem-like structure, with attached leafy structures - anchored by rhizoids - have varied growth forms

  3. reproductive organs are gametangia two types 1) archegonia 2) antheridia very small, attached to the tip of a gametophyte "stem“

  4. monoecious species vs. dioecious species

  5. archegonia - flask-shaped - long neck venter (containing an egg); stalk, attaching to stem tip

  6. antheridia - elongate spheres spermatogenous cells (become sperm) jacket of sterile cells stalk

  7. - when mature, antheridia open and release sperm - sperm swim through film of water to reach an archegonium

  8. - sperm swims to egg - fertilization occurs - enclosed embryo forms - embryo develops into a mature sporophyte; attached to the gametophyte

  9. moss sporophyte consists of: a foot a seta a sporangium each sporangium includes: sporogenous tissue (diploid cells) (meiosis of these will produce haploid spores) surrounded by a sporangial wall

  10. dehiscence = opening of a sporangium to release spores - removal of operculum spore dispersal -peristome teeth

  11. spore germination begins the formation of a new gametophyte **mosses can also reproduce asexually by fragmentation

  12. Vascular Plants (seedless vascular plants AND seed plants) shared characteristics: 1) vascular tissue xylem phloem 2) dominant sporophyte - usually includes stems, leaves, roots, and sporangia 3) cuticle - accompanied by stomates

  13. Seedless Vascular Plants: example – ferns sporophyte generation consists of: 1) rhizome 2) fronds 3) adventitious roots 4) sporangia - often in a sorus - sporophyll

  14. sori are often covered with a protective indusium

  15. sporangium consists of: a sporangial wall sporogenous tissue (later, spores) dehiscence spore dispersal

  16. spore germination - produces multicellular gametophyte (haploid) - gametophyte is a thallus, including rhizoids archegonia and/or antheridia - can be unisexual or bisexual

  17. sperm are released and swim through a film of external water to an archegonium - fertilization of egg (in archegonium) produces a 2n zygote; will produce an embryo; embryo eventually develops into a new adult sporophyte