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Launching the New Nation. Chapter 2 Section 4 Page 74. George Washington. Hero of the Revolution Unanimous choice in nation’s first presidential election Daunting task of creating a new government The Constitution had laid the foundation, but there was no detailed blueprint for governing.

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launching the new nation
Launching the New Nation
  • Chapter 2
  • Section 4
    • Page 74
george washington
George Washington
  • Hero of the Revolution
    • Unanimous choice in nation’s first presidential election
  • Daunting task of creating a new government
    • The Constitution had laid the foundation, but there was no detailed blueprint for governing
judicial system
Judicial System
  • One of the first tasks faced by Washington and Congress was to create a judicial system
    • Judiciary Act of 1789
      • Provided a Supreme Court and federal circuit, as well as district courts
      • Allowed state court decisions to be appealed to a federal court when constitutional issues were raised
    • Federal Laws  supreme laws of the land
executive branch
Executive Branch
  • Washington shapes the executive branch
    • Congress created three executive departments to help the president govern
  • Department of State
    • Dealt with foreign affairs
    • Thomas Jefferson
      • Secretary of State
  • Department of War
    • Handled military matters
    • Henry Knox
      • Secretary of War
  • Department of the Treasury
    • Managed finances
    • Alexander Hamilton
      • Secretary of the Treasury
jefferson vs hamilton
Jefferson vs. Hamilton
  • Different political ideas
  • See p. 76 for more
the first political parties
The First Political Parties
  • Differences in Washington’s cabinet led to a two-party system
    • Federalists  shared Hamilton’s view of a strong central government
      • Mostly Northerners
    • Democratic-Republicans  shared Jefferson’s view of strong state and local governments
      • Mostly Southerners
whiskey rebellion
Whiskey Rebellion
  • Protective tariff  import tax placed on goods from abroad
    • Why would Hamilton want to use a protective tariff?
    • Excise tax also placed on the sale, manufacture, and distributing of whiskey
whiskey rebellion9
Whiskey Rebellion
  • 1794
    • Furious whiskey producers in Pennsylvania refused to pay tax and attacked the tax collectors
    • Federal government sent 13,000 militiamen to end the conflict
      • 1st use of armed force to assert federal authority
foreign affairs
Foreign Affairs
  • 1789
    • French Revolution ended the monarchy in France
  • 1793
    • France was engaged with a war with Great Britain
  • Parties split:
    • Democratic-Republicans wanted to back the French
    • Federalists wanted to back the British
declaration of neutrality
Declaration of Neutrality
  • Washington declared neutrality
    • The U.S. would not support either side in the conflict
    • Washington remained wary of foreign involvement throughout his tenure as president
treaty with spain
Treaty with Spain
  • Thomas Pinckney
    • Negotiated a treaty with Spain
    • Spain agreed to open the Mississippi River to American traffic
      • Also allowed U.S. traders to use the port in New Orleans
  • Paved the way for U.S. expansion west of the Appalachian Mts.
battle of fallen timbers
Battle of Fallen Timbers
  • 1794
    • U.S. military under General Anthony Wayne
      • Defeated confederacy of Native Americans on the western border
  • Established the settlers’ supremacy in the region
jay s treaty
Jay’s Treaty
  • John Jay
    • Chief Justice of the Supreme Court negotiated with the British
      • British agreed to evacuate posts in the Northwest Territory
        • Gave the U.S. more control of the land west of the Appalachians
      • British maintained the right to continue fur trading in the U.S.
jay s treaty15
Jay’s Treaty
  • Many Americans angered
    • Western fur traders angered that British were still allowed to fur trade
    • Treaty did not resolve dispute over neutral trade in the Caribbean
      • Britain had seized U.S. ships and cargo in the Caribbean
  • Washington decides not to seek a third term as president
    • Due to political fight over Jay’s Treaty
    • Growing division between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
    • Why else might Washington have decided not to seek a third term?
election of 1796
Election of 1796
  • Different from previous election where Washington was elected unanimously
  • Federalists nominate John Adams
    • Served as Vice President under Washington
  • Democratic-Republicans nominate Thomas Jefferson
    • Secretary of State under Washington
election of 179618
Election of 1796
  • Adams wins the election
    • 71 to 68 electoral votes
  • Constitution states that the runner-up should become the VP
    • U.S. has a Federalist president and a Democratic-Republican vice president
    • Thomas Jefferson becomes the VP
election of 179619
Election of 1796
  • Election underscored sectionalism that existed in the United States
    • Placing the interests of one region over the interests of another
  • South  voted primarily for Jefferson
  • North  voted primarily for Adams
looming war with france
Looming War with France
  • French government saw the U.S.-British agreement over the NW Territory as a violation of the French-American alliance
    • France began seizing U.S. ships bound for Britain
    • Adams sends a negotiating team to Paris to find a peaceful solution
xyz affair
XYZ Affair
  • Future Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall planned to meet with French foreign minister, Talleyrand
    • Instead, France sent 3 low-level officials who Adams referred to as X, Y, and Z
    • France demanded a $250,000 bribe to see Talleyrand
  • Insulted, the U.S. began feeling anti-French sentiment
xyz affair22
XYZ Affair
  • 1798, Congress creates a naval department
    • For the next two years, an undeclared naval war raged between France and the U.S.
    • Adams refused to wage an all out war, much to the dismay of many Americans
alien and sedition acts
Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Pushed through Congress by the Federalists in 1798
  • Alien Acts
    • Raised residence requirement for citizenship from 5 to 14 years
    • Allowed the president to deport or jail any alien considered undesirable
alien and sedition acts24
Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Sedition Act
    • Set fines and jail terms for anyone trying to hinder the operation of the government
    • Also outlawed the use of “false, scandalous, and malicious statements” against the government
alien and sedition acts25
Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Many Democratic-Republicans jailed as a result
    • Outraged! Claimed it was a violation of their First Amendment rights
  • Democratic-Republicans: Jefferson and Madison
    • Wrote resolutions against the acts calling for nullification*
    • *states could nullify (void) acts of Congress deemed unconstitutional
      • Unsuccessful