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Launching a New Nation. Washington Takes Office. 1789-George Washington was elected the 1 st President of the United States of America. 1 st Nations Capital: New York City Washington established many Precedents . WASHINGTON PRECEDENTS: 1. Gave an inauguration speech

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Washington takes office
Washington Takes Office

  • 1789-George Washington was elected the 1st Presidentof the United States of America.

  • 1st Nations Capital: New York City

  • Washington established many Precedents.


1. Gave an inauguration speech

2. Served only 2 terms

3. Organized the 1st cabinet

4. Remain neutral in foreign affairs

5. Call me Mr. President

George washington sets up the government
George Washington Sets up the Government

  • Washington with the help of Congress, set up our government.

    • Established top positions in the Executive Branch

      • 1. Secretary of Treasury

      • 2. Secretary of State

      • 3. Secretary of War

      • 4. Attorney General

  • Court System (Judiciary)

    • Judiciary Act of 1789: 6 Supreme Court Justices, 3 circuit courts, 13 district courts

    • John Jay became the 1st Chief Justice of Supreme Court

1 st economic problem
1st Economic Problem

  • America is in great DEBT: owed over $ 52 Million

    • Most debt was in form of bonds

  • Problem: most people sold their bonds for less than they were worth

  • How is this problem solved?

Alexander hamilton s financial plan
Alexander Hamilton’s Financial Plan

  • 3 Part Plan

    • 1. U.S. government would assume to Pay all federal and state debts

    • 2. U.S. government would charter a National Bank for depositing government funds

    • 3. government would impose high taxes on importedgoods

  • Southerners were against plan

  • Congress debated for 6 months and reached an agreement in 1790, but the government needed to build a new nations capital in the South.

National bank

  • Bank was to be privately owned and provide a safe place for depositing government funds.

    • Could also issue currency(paper money)

  • People opposed the bank (Thomas Jefferson)

    • Believed it was unconstitutionalbecause the Constitution did not clearly state the allowance

    • Jefferson was a “Strict”Interpreterof the Constitution

    • Hamilton was “Loose”Interpreterof the Constitution

  • 1791, law was passed to establish national bank

High tariffs
High Tariffs

  • Tariffs were used to raisemoney for the federal government.

  • Also helped protectU.S. manufacturers from foreign competition

    • This part of Hamilton’s plan did not pass. Southerners opposed it, Northerners liked it

Whiskey rebellion
Whiskey Rebellion

  • 1791, taxes were imposed on all whiskey made and sold in the U.S.

  • Angered backcountry farmers that made whiskey from their corn

    • Farmers compared the tax to taxes Great Britain placed on them before the Revolutionary War

  • 1794, PA officials attempted to collect whiskey tax, instead farmers rebelled. Marched through the Pittsburgh streets

  • Washington had to make a quick responseto solve the problem. He sent his militia and quickly scattered the farmers.

  • Whiskey Rebellion showedthe power of our government and Washington’s response showed that rebellions were not accepted in our republic

Can you remember
Can you remember?

  • 1. How was the government organized under Washington’s leadership?

  • 2. Why did the U.S. face an economic crisis?

  • 3. Name the 3 parts to Alexander Hamilton’s financial plan.

  • 4. Describe the Whiskey Rebellion and how Washington handled the issue.

The birth of political parties
The Birth of Political Parties

  • Early leaders did not expect political partiesto emerge in the U.S.

    • Most believed leaders would rise above personal/local interests for the sake of the country

  • Early parties were called factionsWashington was completely against factions.

  • Washington predicted that factions would destroythe continuity of the national government

Republicans and federalists
Republicans and Federalists

  • 1st 2 political parties: Republicans/Federalists

  • Republicans argued the federal government was too strong. They wanted to keep the power within the states. Feared a monarchy.

    • Led by southern planters, northern farmers & artisans

    • James Madison and Thomas Jefferson

  • Federalists wanted a strongfederal government to hold country together

    • Supported by merchants, property owners, strong in the north

    • Alexander Hamilton

Early battles
Early battles

  • Federalists generally had the early upper hand. G.W. favoredmany of Hamilton’s policies

  • Republicans continuously argued that the Federalistswere trying to bring back a king (early mudslinging)

Election of 1796
Election of 1796

  • George Washington chose not to seek a 3rdterm.

  • Republican candidate: Thomas Jefferson

  • Federalists candidate: John Adams

    • During early elections Pres. & Vice Pres. Were elected together…went to top 2 vote getters

  • J. Adams finished 1st, T. Jefferson finished 2nd.

    • Led to serious tensionin the National Government

Can you remember1
Can you remember?

  • 1. How did early political parties begin?

  • 2. Describe the differences in political views between the Federalists and Republicans.

  • 3. Describe the potential problems following the election of 1796.

Troubles at home and abroad
Troubles at Home and Abroad

  • The Treaty of Paris stated that the British would have to abandon their forts in the Ohio River Valley, 10 years after the treaty, the British still had not left and they were supplyingNatives with weapons.

  • Natives did not want to give up their land.

  • Federal government believed it needed to settle western lands. Tried to forceNatives to sell their land.

    • By 1790, most lands in Kentucky and TN had been bought, but land north of the Ohio River had been impenetrable

  • Led to Native and whites fighting.

Fighting in the valley
Fighting in the Valley

  • In 1790, George Washington sent forces to end Native American attacks but they were unsuccessful.

  • 1791, a larger force was sent and still unsuccessful. 900Americans died.

  • Washington finally sent, War Hero, Anthony Wayne. August 1794, Battle of Fallen Timbers, Wayne was successful in defeating Natives.

    • Signed the Treaty of Greenville Natives gave up most of their land around the Ohio River and up toward Lake Erie

French revolution
French Revolution

  • 1789, France rebelledagainst their king and leadership.

    • Americans early on supportedthe French rebellion

    • Many changed their opinions during the Reign of Terror.

  • 1793, France and Britain were at war but Washington wanted to remain neutralto allow for trading with both sides

    • Caused both nations to seize American ships and cargo

Problems with neutrality
Problems with Neutrality

  • Britain in desperate need of soldiers began impressingAmerican sailors

  • Washington was advised to try and mend the relationship with the English.

    • Sent John Jay to England where he signed a treaty

      • U.S. would pay debtsowed to British merchants and in return Britain would pay for the ship seized and withdraw troops from Ohio Valley

    • Britain did not recognizeU.S. right to trade with France and kept impressing U.S. soldiers

Goodbye from g washington
Goodbye from G. Washington

  • 1796, Washington announced he would not begin another presidential term.

  • In his farewell address he advised the Americans to stay away from political factions and not to get too involved with foreign affairs.

Can you remember2
Can you remember?

  • 1. What caused the conflicts with Natives in the Northwest Territory?

  • 2. How did American react to the French Revolution?

  • 3. What were the major points of Washington’s farewell address?

  • 4. What were Washington’s accomplishments as President?

The presidency of john adams
The Presidency of John Adams 

  • Continued problems overseas: France was not happy about U.S. neutrality.

    • French believed Jay’s Treaty placed the U.S. on Britain’s side.

    • Continued to impressmentof American merchant ships

Xyz affair
XYZ Affair

  • 1797, J. Adams sent 3 government officials to France to work a deal.

  • French agents wanted the U.S. to lend France millions of dollars.

  • Americans declined to send money to the French.

  • When the bribe went public in the U.S. the French agents were called Agents X, Y, and Z.

Neutrality becomes an issue
Neutrality becomes an issue

  • XYZ Affair outraged many Americans.

    • Many demanded that John Adams declarewar on France.

  • Instead, John Adams asked Congress to increasethe size and strength of our navy.

    • John Adams continued to avoidwar, which put the U.S. people in a rage against John Adams.

  • Lost all approval of the people of the United States.

Alien and sedition acts
Alien and Sedition Acts

  • As the War in Europe continued, many feared European immigrantswould act as the French rebels did.

  • Federalists passed a law aimed at immigrants

    • 1798: Alien Act, increased the number of years a person had to live in the U.S. to become a citizen from 5-14 Years and the President had to power to deport/imprison any alien he considered dangerous.

  • Federalists also passed a law aimed at the Republicans

    • 1798: Sedition Act, made it a crime to write/say anything bad or false about the government and the President.

  • 10 People were convicted from 1798-1799.

States rights
States Rights

  • Republicans despised the Alien and Sedition Acts.

    • Stated that they violated the 1stAmendment

  • Thomas Jefferson and James Madison had to write arguments in order to label the acts unconstitutional

    • Madison wrote to the Virginialegislature

    • Jefferson wrote to the Kentuckylegislature

  • Alien Act expired in 1800

  • Sedition expired in 1801

Can you remember3
Can you remember?

  • What caused tension between the United States and France?

  • What were the provisions of the Alien and Sedition Acts?

  • Why did the issue of states’ rights arise during John Adams’ Presidency?