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Do Now: On the Board- Write anything you know about the War of 1812. Mr. Rasmussen Mrs. Asaro “The War Hawks” 6 th Grade. Direct causes of war. Directly related to Britain’s involvement in Napoleonic Conflict Restriction of trade Impressment. Indirect causes of war.

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mr rasmussen mrs asaro the war hawks 6 th grade

Do Now: On the Board- Write anything you know about the War of 1812.

Mr. Rasmussen

Mrs. Asaro

“The War Hawks”

6th Grade

direct causes of war
Direct causes of war
  • Directly related to Britain’s involvement in Napoleonic Conflict
    • Restriction of trade
    • Impressment
indirect causes of war
Indirect causes of war
  • Britain’s involvement in Napoleonic Wars
    • Caused policies of impressment and trade restrictions which were direct causes of war
  • Rising sense of nationalism in America
  • War Hawks clamored for conflict, expansion into Canada
  • Decades of tension between Britain and America
    • Trade and impressment
the move toward war
The Move Toward War
  • James Madison became President in 1809, tension with Britain was high.
  • British were continuing policy of impressment and were still arming Native Americans in the Northwest (believed this would prevent an American invasion of Canada).
  • Many Americans felt a sense of nationalism-pride in their country.
war hawks
War Hawks
  • Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina become leaders in the House of Representatives.
  • These men, along with others, were eager for war with Britain and were nicknamed “War Hawks.”
  • Many in New England did not want war, fearing that it would affect trade.
british provocation
British provocation

What did the British do to provoke war?

  • Impressment
  • Arming Native Americans again (new attacks)
america not ready for british
America not ready for British

TOTAL MISMATCH

  • June 18, 1812-Congress declared war on Britain.
  • Jefferson had reduced the size of the military and America was not prepared for war (only 16 warships and 7,000 men).(British have 135 at US alone)
early days of war
Early Days of War
  • The British set up a blockade (action of shutting a port to prevent people and materials from coming in or going out of an area) of the American coast.
  • By 1814-British had 135 ships blockading American ports.
  • 1812-The USS Constitutiondefeated the British ship, the Guerriere. The Constitution was given the nickname, “Old Ironsides,” due to its ability to withstand the British attacks.
war in the west and south
War in the West and South
  • In the West
    • Americans and British fought for control of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River.
    • War Hawks demanded an invasion of Canada
    • Many believed that the Canadians would welcome the opportunity to overthrow the British.
    • July 1812-William Hull and his troops invade Canada from Detroit.
invading canada
Invading Canada
  • Fearing that he did not have enough troops, Hull retreated.
  • The British commander, General Isaac Brock, took advantage of Hull’s confusion.
  • Brock’s British and Native American troops captured over 2,000 American soldiers.
war in the west great lakes
War in the west (great lakes)
  • American forces had better luck on Lake Erie.
  • 1813-A battle took place in the western part of the lake.
  • Oliver Hazard Perry and his men defeated the British, forcing them to leave Detroit and retreat to Canada.
war in the west great l akes
War in the west (Great Lakes)
  • As the British and their Native American allies retreated into Canada, William Henry Harrison and his men pursued them.
  • The Battle of the Thames followed.
  • The Americans were victorious. Tecumseh was killed in battle fighting on the side of the British.
conflict in the south
Conflict in the South
  • 1813- Creek warriors attacked several American settlements in the South.
  • 1814-Andrew Jackson defeated the Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. The treaty that followed forced the Native Americans to give up millions of acres of land.
final battles
Final Battles

In 1814, the British defeat Napoleon. This allows them to devote more military resources toward defeating US.

  • 1814-The British invade Washington, D.C.
  • Dolley Madison, the President’s wife, gathered up some valuable items and fled the White House. Madison took command of an artillery battery outside the White House
    • Made him the only President to participate in war while in office
  • The White House, Capitol and most government buildings were set on fire.
battle of fort mchenry
Battle of Fort McHenry
  • The British moved on to Baltimore and began a bombardment of Fort McHenry, which defended the harbor.
  • Battle inspires the “Star Spangled Banner”
star spangled banner
Star Spangled Banner
  • September 13, 1814-Francis Scott Key watched the British bombard the fort.
  • In the morning, when it was clear that the Americans had withstood the attack, Key wrote a poem commemorating the event.
  • Poem was set to music, in 1931 it became the national anthem.
lyrics closure
Lyrics/ closure

Note: The melody came from a British pub song.

Closure- Pick a line and complete a visual metaphor as a left side.

Oh, say, can you see, by the dawn's early light,What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last gleaming?Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro' the perilous fight,O'er the ramparts we watch'd, were so gallantly streaming?And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still there.O say, does that star-spangled banner yet waveO'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

war ends
War Ends
  • 1814: Peace talks took place in Ghent, Belgium.
  • Christmas Eve 1814, peace treaty signed-things returned to the way they were before the war.
  • News of the peace took weeks to reach the United States. In January, Andrew Jackson won an incredible victory in the Battle of New Orleans.-
treaty of ghent terms
Treaty of Ghent- terms
  • All hostilities would end
  • “all territory, places and possessions whatsoever, taken by either party from the other during the war” would be restored as they were before the war. 
    • In short, no one won a thing.  Impressment, a major cause of the war, was not even mentioned.
treaty of g hent terms
Treaty of Ghent- terms
  • The belligerents agreed to restore the Indians to “all possessions, rights and privileges which they may have enjoyed, or been entitled to in 1811.”  But without a clearly-drawn map of Native land reserves,
    • This clause was meaningless.  Tecumseh’s confederacy was irretrievably destroyed, and Harrison’s victories could not be reversed. The Natives were simply in the way.
treaty of ghent
Treaty of Ghent

At first, Britain pursued more aggressive terms, such as…

  • Creating an American Indian buffer state between British Canada and America.
  • Keeping land both sides won in the conflict (Britain would have kept Maine and Detroit.)
why the war ended
Why the war ended

Why the war ended

  • Britain was tired of war and negotiating.
    • Participation in Napoleonic conflict
  • The causes of the War of 1812 had disappeared after Britain defeated Napoleon.
    • No need for impressment and restriction of trade after Napoleon defeated.
    • Britain achieved its goal
  • Nothing major to gain from treaty. Not a decisive victory for either side though America’s capital burned.
effects
Effects
  • Tecumseh’s confederacy destroyed
  • America poised for growth and expansion into NA territory
  • Newly respected diplomatic recognition with Britain
  • War of 1812 called “Second War of Independence” by some.
  • Pride from the war brought new confidence to the young nation.
critical thinking debate
Critical thinking- debate
  • 1.America’s capital was burned to the ground. Did we lose the war?
  • 2. If so, did we lose in the treaty?
  • 3. Did anyone win anything in the treaty?
  • 4. If no, then was the war pointless?
  • 5. What does this say about the way people thought about war back then?
  • Video
  • Who won the war- Video
hartford convention
Hartford Convention
  • Federalists and New Englanders particularly disliked the war.
  • The blockade badly damaged trade.
  • December 1814-delegates met in Hartford, Connecticut. Some in the Convention brought up the prospect of seceding from the United States.

While the delegates debated, news of peace reached the Convention.