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A JOURNEY INSIDE MATTER LEAD BY PHYSICS NOBEL PRIZE winners

A JOURNEY INSIDE MATTER LEAD BY PHYSICS NOBEL PRIZE winners

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A JOURNEY INSIDE MATTER LEAD BY PHYSICS NOBEL PRIZE winners

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  1. A JOURNEY INSIDE MATTER LEAD BYPHYSICSNOBEL PRIZEwinners

  2. Introduction:ALFRED NOBEL(1833-1896) • Chemical engineer • Dynamite’s inventor • Committed pacifist • One of the biggest maecenas for humankind • He died in San Remo, Italy, in 1896. • At the end of the century, his project about realizing a foundation to award a prize for researches in scientific and literary fields was instituted. • In 1901 “Nobel Foundation” awarded first five Nobel Prizes. CERN HST 2001

  3. CERN HST 2001

  4. 1901: Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen1845-1923Munich University • The first physicist who won a Nobel Prize • Discovery of X-rays Official Motivation: “in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him” CERN HST 2001

  5. 1903Antoine Henry BECQUEREL – France, 1852-1908Pierre CURIE – France, 1859-1906Marie (Sklodowska) CURIE–France, 1867(in Warsaw, Poland)-1934 • Discovery of radioactivity • Research into radioactivity Official motivation: “in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by professor Henri Becquerel” CERN HST 2001

  6. 1906: J. J. THOMSONGreat Britain - (1856-1940)Cambridge University • 1895: discovery of the electron. In his famous experiment he proved that new particles, indicated by the sign e-, were deviated by electric and magnetic fields and that one could measure the ratio e/m of their electric charge to their mass. “…in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases.” P.S. In 1908 Ernest RUTHERFORD, who had proposed a new model of the atom, won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry (never in Physics). CERN HST 2001

  7. CERN HST 2001

  8. 1918: Max PlanckGermany – (1858-1947)Berlin University • Theoretical physicist • 1900: E=hν h is a very small constant which is the keystone to all quantum mechanics, under the name of PLANCK`s CONSTANT • h=6.62 10-34 J.s Official motivation “in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of physics by his discovery of energy quanta” CERN HST 2001

  9. 1921: Albert EinsteinUlm, Germany – (1879-1955)Kaiser Wilhelm Institute(now Max Planck Institute) fur Physik, Berlin • 1905: Photoelectric effect – discovery of PHOTON • As Planck, also Einstein received Nobel Prize many years after his works. It indicates the prudence of Nobel Prize Committee about new and revolutionary theories. • He did not received N.P. for Relativity Theory! Official motivation “…for his services to theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect”. …it is very easy to recognize the man on the right, but who is the man on the left? CERN HST 2001

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  11. 1922: Niels BohrDenmark – (1885-1962)Copenhaguen University • Pacifist • He took an active part in 1955 at the first conference in Geneva on Atoms for Peace • Founder Member of CERN Official motivation “for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them”. CERN HST 2001

  12. 1923: Robert MillikanU.S.A. (1868-1953)California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA “…for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect.” CERN HST 2001

  13. 1932: Werner HeisenbergGermany – (1901-1976)Leipzig University Established his uncertainty rules. “…for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen.” CERN HST 2001

  14. 1935: James ChadwickGreat Britain (1891-1974)Liverpool University • Experimental physicist Official motivation “ for the discovery of the NEUTRON” • The neutron was discovered in 1932, only three years before! CERN HST 2001

  15. 1936: Carl AndersonU.S.A. 1905-1991 California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA “…for his discovery of the POSITRON…” • The positron was discovered the same year of the neutron • In 1928Paul Dirac (Nobel Prize in 1933) had announced the existence of this particle of “antimatter”, the positive version of the electron, symbolised by e+. Victor Hesse Austria 1883-1964 Innsbruck University “…for his discovery of cosmic radiation.” Carl Anderson CERN HST 2001

  16. 1939: Ernest LawrenceU.S.A. 1901-1958Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA • Experimental physicist • “…for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements.” The 1940 Nobel Award Ceremony for E. O. Lawrence at Wheeler Hall at the University of California, Berkeley. Awarding the prize is Swedish Consul General with U.C.President Robert Sproul is looking on. CERN HST 2001

  17. CERN HST 2001

  18. 1949: Hideki YukawaJapan 1907-1981Kyoto Imperial University and Columbia University, New York, NY • In 1935 he proposed the existence of a particle as the carrier of the force that gripped neutrons and protons in the nucleus. This was called a PI-MESON, or PION, labeled π. • π mesons exist in three different charge conditions: π +, π -, π 0, depending upon whether they carry positive, negative or no electrical charge respectively, and their masses are almost identical to one another Official motivation “for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces”. CERN HST 2001

  19. 1959Emilio Segre` - U.S.A.1905(Tivoli, Italy)-1989Owen Chamberlain – U.S.A. 1920Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley,CA • “…for their discovery of the antiproton” 1905 at Bevatron - Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Emilio Segre` CERN HST 2001

  20. 1960: Donald GlaserU.S.A. 1926Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley,CA • “…for the invention of Bubble Chambers” CERN HST 2001

  21. CERN HST 2001

  22. 1965Richard FeynmanU.S.A. 1918-1988 California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CAJulian SchwingerU.S.A.1918-1994Harvard University, Cambridge, MASin-Itiro TomonagaJapan 1906-1979Tokyo University, Japan • QED: quantum electro-dynamics • Feynman diagrams “…for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with profound consequences for the physics of elementary particles.” CERN HST 2001

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  24. 1969: Murray Gell-MannU.S.A. 1929California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA • “…for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions.” • In 1960 Y. Ohnuki suggested that LIE`s algebra of groups (that was formulated in the nineteenth century by the Norwegian mathematician SOPHUS LIE) could be applied to elementary particles and, in the following years Salam, Ne`eman and Gell-Mann developed the principal results. This theory, known under the name SU3 (transformation by unitary matrices in three dimensions), gives very consistent results, and was justified two years later by the discovery of the Ω- particle which it had predicted. its geometric aspect is attractive and the mathematical methods which it proposes for breaking up an assembly into groups can be applied in all fields and at all levels. CERN HST 2001

  25. WHO ARE THEY? CERN HST 2001

  26. 1979Sheldon Lee Glashow - U.S.A. 1932Lyman Laboratory, Harvard university, Cambridge, MAAbdus Salam - Pakistan 1926International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, and Imperial College of Science and Technology, LondonSteven Weinberg - U.S.A. 1933Harvard University, Cambridge, MA • “…for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including inter alia the prediction of the weak neutral current.” CERN HST 2001

  27. CERN HST 2001

  28. 1984Carlo Rubbia – Italy 1934Simon Van Der Meer – Netherlands 1925CERN, Geneva, Switzerland • “…for their decisive contributions to the large project which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z , communicators of weak interaction” CERN HST 2001

  29. CERN HST 2001

  30. 1988Leon M Lederman – U.S.A. 1922Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, ILMelvin Schwartz - U.S.A. 1932Stanford University, Stanford, CAJack Steinberger - U.S.A. 1921 (in Bad Kissingen, FRG)CERN, Geneva, Switzerland • “…for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon-neutrino.” CERN HST 2001

  31. The man on the left is… • Charlie Chaplin CERN HST 2001

  32. The two persons are … • Have a good look at the two previous photographs!!! …GELL-MANN and FEYNMAN CERN HST 2001