A Nobel Prize A Nobel Prize is an international well known reward. Since 1901, the Nobel Literature Prize has been rewarded every year to a writer who, according to Alfred Nobel, a great chemist, did a lot for mankind through the idealistic power of his work. It exists several Nobel prizes : Chemistry, Medecine, Literature and peace. Since 1901, the prizes have been awarded every year, in Oktober. The delivery of the prizes takes place in Sweden (Alfred Nobel’s Country) on December 10th to commemorate the anniversary of his death.
1901 Sully Prudhomme René François Armand Prudhomme, Sully Prudhomme as he was called, was born in Paris on 16 March 1839 and died in Chatenay-Malabry on September 6th, 1907 at the age of 68 years old. He was a French poet, he was the writer who received the Nobel Prize for literature in 1901. Throughout his career, Sully Prudhomme gradually shifted from the sentimental type that can still be found in « the test » and the solitudes to adopt a more personal style that relates to Parnassos with an interest for scientific and philosophical subjects.
1904 Frédéric Mistral Frédéric Mistral was born in 1830 in the village of Maillane. He is considered most famous in provençal language. His works are famous all over the world. First praised by Lamartine, he was awarded the literature Nobel Prize in 1904. He published his memories in 1906 in which he recalls his childhood and his youth up to the creation of Felibrige and up the publication of Mirèio in 1859. He died on 25 March 1914. Some writings : Mireille from which Gounod wrote an opera ; Calendal ; La reine Jeanne; les contes provençaux ; les Olivades
1915 Romain Rolland Romain Rolland was born January 29, 1866 and died December 30, 1944. He is a French playwright, novelist, art historian and mystic who was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1915 in tribute to the idealism of this literary production and the sympathy and love for truth with which he described different types of human beings. All over his life he looks for a means of communion between people. His demand for justice led him to seek peace during and after the First World War. Some writings : Clerambault et Pierre et Luce (1920), le Jeu de l'amour et de la mort (1925), Pâques-Fleuries (1926), les Léonides (1928), le Voyage intérieur (1926), la Cathédrale interrompue (1943).
1921 Anatole France Anatole France is a french novelist. He was born in 1844 in Paris. The characteristics of the writing of Anatole are the uronismand urban skepticism. His most famous novels are : l e crime de Sylvestre Bonnard( 1881) and la rotisserie de la Reine Pedauque (1893). He introduced also both bitter satire and humanitarian concerns into many works, such as in Monsieur Bergeret à Paris (1897/1901), reflects his support for Alfred Dreyfus. Anatole France won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1921. He died in 1924 in Paris.
1927 Henri-Louis BERGSON Henri-Louis BERGSON was the most famous French philosopher, especially in the first half of the XXth century. He was born in Paris in 1859 and he died in 1941. He was influenced by Kant and Spinoza. BERGSON received the Nobel Prize in 1927. He marked the end of Cartesian period and the begining of bergsonism. BERGSON argued that the intuition is deeper than the intellect. His famous writings : Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience (1889) ; Matière en mémoire (1896) ; Le rire (1900) ; L’évolution créatrice (1907) ; L'énergie spirituelle (1919) ; Les Deux sources de la morale et de la religion (1932) ; La pensée et le mouvant (1934)
1937 Roger Martin du Gard Roger Martin du Gard, (born on March 23, 1881, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, died on Aug. 22, 1958, Bellême). He is a French author and the winner of the 1937 Nobel Prize for Literature. Trained as a paleographer and an archivist, Martin du Gard brought to his works a spirit of objectivity and a scrupulous regard for details. Du Gard spent his childhood in Paris, where he attended several schools; but, due to his poor scholastic performance, he only completed the equivalency of a high school education through instruction by a private tutor, who introduced him to the writings of renowned authors. The Nobel Prize for Literature in 1937 was awarded to him for the artistic power and truth with which he depicted human conflicts as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel-cycle « Les Thibault ».
1947 André Gide André Gide was born in 1869 in Paris. His family was from the protestant class. He was a French major writer in the XXth century. André GIDE was inspired by the “dada” movement (elimination of any likeness). He takes his inspiration from history or paintings. He obtained the Nobel prize for literature in 1947. He died in 1951. Some writings : Le traité de Narcisse (1891) ; Paludes (1895) ; Les nourritures terrestres (1897) ; L’immoraliste (1902)
1952 François Mauriac François Mauriac was born in 1885 in Bordeaux. He was a French writer. Mauriac grew up in a pious and strict Catholic family, and he subsequently placed at the heart of all his works the soul grappling with the problems of sin, grace, and salvation. He is best known for his austere, psychological novel, including Jeune Homme Enchainé (1913), le Baiser au Lépreux (1922), le désert de l’amour (1925), Thérèse Desqueyroux (1927), le sagouin (1951) often considered his masterpiece La Pharisienne (1941). He wrote polemical works against totalitarianism and fascism in the 1930s and worked with the Resistance during World War II. In 1952 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature.
1957 Albert Camus Albert Camus was born in 1913 in Algeria. He died in a car accident on January 4th 1960. His life in Algeria influenced his thought and his works. He was deeply interested in philosophy. He came to France when he was 25. He joined the resistance movement during the occupation and became a journalist. In all his works, he looks for moral order in a absurd world. The revolt is for him an answer to absurdity. He won the nobel prize for literature in 1957. He wrote : l’Etranger (1942), la Peste (1947), la Chute (1956), l’Exil et le Royaume (1957)
1960 Saint John Perse Saint John Perse was born in 1887 in Guadeloupe. Saint John Perse is a pseudonym, his real name was Alexis Saint Leger. After his childhood, he studied law in France. During the 2nd World War, he had to go into exile in the United States where he started a career as a poet. He took his inspiration from Paul Claudel, a French well-known writer and poet and paid last respects to him when he died. He wrote about his childhood in the islands and his poems are full of images and sounds. They are a tribute to Creation. He was awarded the Literature Nobel Prize in 1960, before being edited in “La Pléiade”, which was the final tribute to his literary genius. He died in 1975. Some writings : Eloges (1967) ; Vents (1968) ; Amers (1970) ; Œuvres complètes (1972)
1964 Jean-Paul Sartre Jean-Paul Sartre is a French-language writer, a philosopher. He was politically active in his century, also a playwright, a novelist, a short story writer and an essayist. He was born on June 21th, 1905 in Paris, died 15 April 1980 at the age of 74 years old in that city. The works of Jean-Paul Sartre are rich in philosophical texts and majoressays of unequal length, essays as Being and Nothingness (1943). Uncompromising and true to himself and to his ideas, he always rejected honors. On December 10th, 1964, he refused the Nobel Prize for literature, he said, « no man deserves being dedicated during life ». His had a great impact all over the world. Some works : La Nausée (1938) ; Le Mur (1939) ; Les Chemins de la liberté (1945) ; L’Âge de raison ; Le Sursis ; La Mort dans l’âme ; Les mains sales
1985 Claude Simon Claude Simon was a French writer. He was born on 10th October in 1913 in Madagascar. He died in 2005 in Paris . He received the Nobel prize in 1985. He painted and he took photos. Simon was influenced by Proust . In 1950 he met Alain-Robbe-Grillet and Michel Butor, he joined the ''New novel'‘movement. His famous works : Le Vent (1957) ; L'Herbe (1958) ; La Route des Flandres (1960) ; Le Palace (1962) ; Histoire (1967) ; Leçon de choses (1975) ; L'Invitation (1987)
2008 J.M.G Le Clézio Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio is a famous under the signature JMG Le Clézio. He was born in Nice on April 13, 1940. He is a French and Mauritian writer. Le Clézio published novels. He got the Nobel Prize for literature in 2008 as a writer of new departures, poetic adventures and sensual ecstasy. He explores our civilization. He travelled widely and received many awards during his lifetime. Some writings :Le procès-verbal(1963), Le déluge (1966), Voyages de l'autre côté (1975), Mondo et autres histoires (1978), Lullaby (1980), Celui qui n'avait jamais vu la mer (1982), Pawana (1992, Ritournelle de la faim (2008)