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Protein - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Protein. The Body’s Building Blocks. What is Protein?. Protein is an energy supplying nutrient made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. The nitrogen is what makes it different from carbohydrates and fats.

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The Body’s Building Blocks

what is protein
What is Protein?
  • Protein is an energy supplying nutrient made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. The nitrogen is what makes it different from carbohydrates and fats.
  • Proteins are formed from the combining of 20 different amino acids into different combinations and patterns.
  • There are at least 30,000 different types of proteins with a specific job or function, DNA is one of them.
functions of protein
Functions of Protein
  • Build and maintain tissues – protein is needed to form the structure of muscles, organs, skin, blood, hair, nails, and every other body part.
  • Make important compounds – these compounds include enzymes, which cause specific chemical reactions in the body. (example – digestive enzymes)
function of protein cont
Function of Protein (cont.)
  • Regulate mineral and fluid balance – help carry sodium and potassium from one side of cell walls to the other.
  • Maintain acid-base balance – maintains the correct level of acidity of body fluid.
  • Carry vital substance – helps transport fats, iron and other nutrients, and oxygen through the body.
function of protein cont5
Function of Protein (cont.)
  • Provide Energy – If carbohydrates and fats are lacking in the diet, the body will use proteins as an energy source.
food sources of protein
Food Sources of Protein
  • Animal Sources: Animal flesh is the largest source of protein in a meat-eating culture. Although meat is an excellent source of protein, some meat products are high in fat.

* Source of Complete Proteins

  • Plant Sources: Protein is found in grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes (peanuts, kidney beans, lentils, chickpease, etc.)

* Source of Incomplete Proteins

types of vegetarianism
Types of Vegetarianism
  • Vegans – no food from any animal sources
  • Lacto-vegetarians – eat dairy products, but no meat products or eggs
  • Lacto-ovo vegetarians – dairy products and eggs, but no meat products
  • Semivegetarians – eat dairy, eggs, poultry, and seafood, but no red meat
reasons for vegetarianism
Reasons for Vegetarianism
  • Religious reason
  • Health reasons
  • Socioeconomic reasons
  • Environmental reasons
  • Humanitarian reasons

* Vegetarians must be sure to choose Complementary proteins.

the rda for protein
The RDA for Protein
  • 14 – 18 year-old males : 52 grams
  • 14-18 year-old females: 46 grams
  • 10-35% of your calories should come from protein. Example: a young woman who needs 2,400 calories a day should eat a minimum of 240 calories from protein.
  • Follow the food guide to ensure you get enough the RDA of protein.
risks of too little protein
Risks of too little protein
  • Negative nitrogen balance
  • Protein-energy malnutrition
      • Kwashiorkor – child does not reach full growth potential, common in poor cultures
      • Marasmus – muscles and tissues begin to waste away, child becomes thin, weak, and susceptible to infection and disease
excess proteins in diet
Excess proteins in diet
  • Liver and kidney problems
  • Calcium Loss
  • Excess body fat