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Reading Skills. How to read for main idea in reading comprehension. Question forms: 1 ). 主题型主旨大意题的题干表现形式 : The main idea of the passage is… The passage is mainly about… Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage? 2). 目的类主旨大意题

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Reading Skills


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reading skills

Reading Skills

How to read for main idea

in reading comprehension

slide2
Question forms:

1). 主题型主旨大意题的题干表现形式:

The main idea of the passage is…

The passage is mainly about…

Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage?

2). 目的类主旨大意题

The purpose of this article is to …

3). 标题类主旨大意题

The best title for the passage might be…

slide3
主题句的特点:( topic + controlling idea)

1)主题句所表达的意思具有概括性

2)句子结构简单明了,作者一般不会采用长句或结构复杂的句子作为文章的主题句;

3)文章或段落中的其他句子都是对主题句的进一步解释、说明、论证或扩展。

slide4

Tip 1: Not too general, not too specific !

eg:Choose the most general word.A) chemist B) physicist C) scientist D) biologist

eg:Choose the most general sentence. A) The hotel offers complimentary coffee from 7 to 10 a.m. daily. B) There are many reasons why guests feel at home at the hotel. C) The coin-operated laundry room has an ironing board. D) There are a number of extra services at the hotel including baby-sitting.

slide5
Tip2: to find out topic/key sentences
  • 要学会借助文章的结构来把握中心思想。段落中心思想常常由主题句( Topic sentence)来表达。主题句常常出现在段首或段尾处, 有时也在段落中间。同样, 一篇文章的中心思想也常常在开始段或结尾段点出。因此, 在阅读中, 我们要对文章的开始段和结尾段及段落的主题句给予特别的注意。
slide6
Sometimes the first sentence of a passage is the topic(key) sentence
  • Sometimes the last sentenceis the topic (key) sentence
  • Sometimes the topic(key) sentence is in the middleof a passage
  • Sometimes you have to put several key sentences togetherto get the main idea
  • Sometimes you can’t find the topic(key) sentence in the passage. You have to sum it up yourself.
slide7

Asian countries continue to find better ways to solve their pollution problems. Singapore introduced a Corrective Work Order campaign. C.W.O. requires those people who like to throw waste materials in a public place to do public service. They must clean beaches, parks and housing developments. As a result, rubbish has decreased.Thailand uses fear to control throwing away rubbish. A rich Thai woman designed “magic eyes” to encourage people to protect the surroundings. The eyes were put up in schools and on every street corner.Certainly the most expensive plan is Japan’s large vacuum. This vacuum will operate along Osaka’s dirtiest road. The vacuum sucks up the air and makes it clean.

The best tile for this passage is ________.

A.Asian plans for pollution B.Air pollution in Asia

C.How to solve the problem of air pollution

D.How to make the air clean

slide8

Like every big city, New York has its own traffic system. Traffic jams can be terrible. It’s usually quickest to go by subway. The New York subway is easy to use and quite cheap. The subway goes to almost every corner of Manhattan. But it is not safe to take the subway late at night because in some places you could get robbed. New York buses are also easy to use. You see more if you go by bus. There are more than 30,000 taxis in New York. They are easy to see, because they are bright yellow and carry Large TAXI signs. Taxis do not go outside the city. However, they will go to the airports. In addition to the taxi fare, people give the taxi driver a tip of 15 percent of the fare’s value.

slide9

How to find the topic sentence

Often no one looks more guilty than the innocent. On the other hand, nobody may look more innocent than a professional criminal. And the man who knows “everything” may really only be trying to hide his own weakness. So, it is foolish to try to judge a person only by his appearance.

slide10

主题句也会出现在段尾。作者先摆出事实依据, 层层推理论证, 最后自然得出结论, 即段落的主题。

Some students prefer a strict teacher who tells them exactly what to do. Others prefer to be left to work on their own. Still others like a democratic discussion type of class. No one teaching method can be devised to satisfy all students at the same time.

本段的中心思想在结尾句得到体现,它是此段内容的结论。

slide11
If you were planning to buy a television set, the following advertisement would certainly draw your attention: “Color TV. Only $79 Two day sale. However, when you go to the store ready to buy. You may discover that they are sold out. But the shop assistant is quick to tell you that he has another model. A much better set which is “just right for you” It costs $395. This sales method is called “bait and switch”. Buyers are baited with a sales advertisement, and then they are switched to another more expensive one. Buying things on sale needs careful consideration of the goods and the reason for the sale.
  • The paragraph could be entitled _________.

A. Buying A TV Set

B. A Selling Method

C. Buyer Beware

D. TV On Sale

(detail)

(detail)

(detail)

slide12

有些段落的主题句被安排在段落的中间

For adults a cold is not that serious. However, this is not the case for children. Cold symptoms in children may be sighs of more serious diseases and should be given prompt medical attention.

当主题句被安排在段中时, 作者往往从具体的事例谈起, 随之归纳出主题, 然后再围绕这一主题展开讨论, 使立论更加清楚, 具有很强的说服力, 即以“立”为主, 对正面观点进行阐述。

练中学

slide13

Eg. Passage A (NMET2003)

Reading to dogs is an unusual way to help children improve their literacy skills(读写能力). With their shining brown eyes, wagging tails, and unconditional love, dogs can provide the nonjudgmental listeners needed for a beginning reader to gain confidence (自信心), according to Intermountain Therapy Animals (ITA) in Salt Lake City. The group says it is the first program in the country to use dogs to help develop literacy in children, with the introduction of Reading Education Assistance Dogs (READ).

The Salt Lake City Public Library is sold on the idea. “Literacy specialists admit that children who read below the level of their fellow pupils are often afraid of reading aloud in a group, often have lower self-respect, and regard reading as a headache,” said Lisa Myron, manager of the children’s department.

Last November the two groups started “ Dog Day Afternoon” in the children’s department of the main library. About 25 children attended each of the four Saturday-afternoon classes, reading for half an hour. Those who attended three of the four classes received a “pawgraphed” book at the last class. The program was so successful that the library plans to repeat it in April, according to Dana Thumpowsky, public relations manager.

What is mainly discussed in the text?

slide14
Eg1. Passage A(NMET2003)

Reading to dogs is an unusual way to help children improve their literacy skills(读写能力). With their shining brown eyes, wagging tails, and unconditional love, dogs can provide the nonjudgmental listeners needed for a beginning reader to gain confidence (自信心), according to Intermountain Therapy Animals (ITA) in Salt Lake City. The group says it is the first program in the country to use dogs to help develop literacy in children, with the introduction of Reading Education Assistance Dogs (READ).

The Salt Lake City Public Library is sold on(赞成) the idea. “Literacy specialists admit that children who read below the level of their fellow pupils are often afraid of reading aloud in a group, often have lower self-respect, and regard reading as a headache,” said Lisa Myron, manager of the children’s department.

Last November the two groups started “ Dog Day Afternoon” in the children’s department of the main library. About 25 children attended each of the four Saturday-afternoon classes, reading for half an hour. Those who attended three of the four classes received a “pawgraphed” book at the last class.The program was so successful that the library plans to repeat it in April, according to Dana Thumpowsky, public relations manager.

Example and success

of the program

slide15
Passage A (NMET2003)

Reading to dogs is an unusual way to help children improve their literacy skills(读写能力). With their shining brown eyes, wagging tails, and unconditional love, dogs can provide the nonjudgmental listeners needed for a beginning reader to gain confidence (自信心), according to Intermountain Therapy Animals (ITA) in Salt Lake City. The group says it is the first program in the country to use dogs to help develop literacy in children, with the introduction of Reading Education Assistance Dogs (READ).

The Salt Lake City Public Library is sold on the idea. “Literacy specialists admit that children who read below the level of their fellow pupils are often afraid of reading aloud in a group, often have lower self-respect, and regard reading as a headache,” said Lisa Myron, manager of the children’s department.

Last November the two groups started “ Dog Day Afternoon” in the children’s department of the main library. About 25 children attended each of the four Saturday-afternoon classes, reading for half an hour. Those who attended three of the four classes received a “pawgraphed” book at the last class.The program was so successful that the library plans to repeat it in April, according to Dana Thumpowsky, public relations manager.

Example and success

of the program

59. What is mainly discussed in the text?

A. Children’s reading difficulties. B. Advantages of raising dogs.

C. Service in a public library. D. A special reading program.

slide16
Passage B

Magellan’s men were the first to make the trip around the world. It took them more than two years to do so by ship.

Magellan was from Portugal, but he sailed for the King of Spain. On September 20, 1519, he left Spain with five ships and 240 men. After passing the tip of South America, they reached the Pacific Ocean, on which they sailed more than one year. Very often they could not see a piece of land for months and they suffered greatly from the lack of food and fresh water. Many of them died of hunger and diseases. They even had to live on sawdust. Finally in April 1521, Magellan got to the Philippine Islands, where he was killed. His men fled and continued their voyage across the Indian Ocean. It was with the greatest difficulty that they passed the Cape of Good Hope. By the time they returned to Spain on December 21,1521, seven out of every eight men had died.

Magellan’s voyage proved that men could sail around the world and that our earth is but a huge ball.

slide17
1st para.

Magellan’s men were the first to make the trip around the world. It took them more than two years to do so by ship.

Magellan’s voyage was the first trip around the world .

slide18

2nd para.

Magellan was from Portugal, but he sailed for the King of Spain. On September 20, 1519, he left Spain with five ships and 240 men. After passing the tip of South America, they reached the Pacific Ocean, on which they sailed more than one year. Very often they could not see a piece of land for months and they suffered greatly from the lack of food and fresh water. Many of them died of hunger and diseases. They even had to live on sawdust. Finally in April 1521, Magellan got to the Philippine Islands, where he was killed. His men fled and continued their voyage across the Indian Ocean. It was with the greatest difficulty that they passed the Cape of Good Hope. By the time they returned to Spain on December 21,1521, seven out of every eight men had died.

The process of Magellan’s long difficult voyage

slide19
the last para.

Magellan’s voyage proved that men could sail around the world and that our earth is but a huge ball.

Magellan’s voyage proved the earth is round.

slide20

Paragraph 1:

Magellan’s voyage was the first trip around the world .

Magellan’s men were the first to make the trip around the world. It took them more than two years to do so by ship.

Magellan was from Portugal, but he sailed for the King of Spain. On September 20, 1519, he left Spain with five ships and 240 men. After passing the tip of South America, they reached the Pacific Ocean, on which they sailed more than one year. Very often they could not see a piece of land for months and they suffered greatly from the lack of food and fresh water. Many of them died of hunger and diseases. They even had to live on sawdust. Finally in April 1521, Magellan got to the Philippine Islands, where he was killed. His men fled and continued their voyage across the Indian Ocean. It was with the greatest difficulty that they passed the Cape of Goed Hope. By the time they returned to Spain on December 21,1521, seven out of every eight men had died.

  • Magellan’s voyage proved that men could sail around the world and that our earth is but a huge ball.

Magellan’s

voyage

Paragraph 2:

The process of Magellan’s long difficult voyage

Paragraph 3:

Magellan’s voyage proved the earth is round.

slide21

Eg3 .A new eight-kilometer road is under construction that links the port area with motorway system. It is expected to carry 20,000 trucks and cars a day, which greatly reduces the overcrowded traffic in the center of the city. As part of the project, two four-kilometer road tunnels are being built below the central area of the city, one for traffic to the north and the other for the traffic to the south. The two tunnels are about 20 meters below the surface and are 12 meters wide, providing for two lanes of traffic in each direction.

In the upper part of the tunnel two air-conditioning pipes remove the waste gas of trucks and cars and keep the quality of air inside the tunnel. The lighting is at the top of the tunnel, practically at its highest point. There will also be electric signs at frequent intervals. They show traffic conditions ahead and can be seen clearly by drivers. The wall is made up of four main elements, which include a waterproofing covering and, on the inside of the tunnel, a concrete lining.

slide22

Each tunnel is roughly round and the lower part of the tunnel is somewhat flat. The surface of the road lies on the base, which is made of concrete and steel. The drainage system, just below the road surface on one side, removes any extra liquid, particularly water. In the event of fire, the fire main, which is made of steel, pipes water to many fire hydrant stations at regular intervals along the length of the tunnel. The fire main is at the side of the tunnel and at the level of the road surface. Other systems in the tunnel will include emergency phones.

The passage is mainly about _____.

A. the construction of a road

B. the design of a road

C. the construction of two tunnels

D. the design of two tunnels

slide23

例1: Sugar history in the Hawaiian Islands is filled with pioneers. In sailing ship days, Hawaiian sugar growers were many months from sources of supplies and from markets. This isolation built up among the Hawaiian growers an enduring spirit of cooperation. Growers shared with one another improvements in production. Without government aid of any sort, they built great irrigation projects. Without government help, they set up their own research and experiment organization. Pioneers together over the years, they have provided Hawaii with its largest industry. Which statement best expresses the main idea of the passage?

A) In sailing days, Hawaiian sugar growers were many months away from supplies and markets. B) Hawaiian sugar growers built their great industry without government help. C) Hawaiian sugar growers have set up their own research organization and have shared improvements. D) By pioneers together, sugar growers have provided Hawaii with its largest industry.

slide24

例2:There is a simple economic principle used to determine prices. It is called the law of supply and demand. Supply means the amount of, or access to, certain goods. Demand represents the number of people who want those goods. If there are more goods than wanted, the price of them falls. On the other hand, if the demand for those goods is much greater than the supply, then price rises. Of course manufacturers prefer to sell more goods at increased prices. What’s the best title/headline for the passage?

A) Economic Principles B) Law of Supply and Demand C) More Goods, Lower Prices D) Fewer Goods, Higher Prices

slide25

例3.According to legend, the gods of the ancient Greeks lived in the clouds on the top of Mount Olympus. Zeus, the father of the gods, carried a bolt of lightning in his hand and ruled like an earthly king. Apollo was the sun god and his beams were golden arrows; he shielded the flocks of sheep and the fields of grain. Athena was the warrior goddess, standing in shining armor ready to protect the Greek cities. There were other gods as well, all with familiar human characteristics, but these were the leading gods. What’s the best title/headline for the passage?

A)The Gods of the Ancient Greeks B) The Legend of the Sky God Zeus C) Beliefs of the Ancient Greeks D) Religions of the Past

conclusion
conclusion:

How to get accurate information, and use them to conclude the main idea of a passage????

  • topic/key sentences
  • put several key sentences together to get the main idea
  • You have to sum it up yourself.
  • find out high frequency words
  • not too general, not too specific !