Chapter 1 Overview • Students with disabilities have received AT accommodations beginning as early as 1973. The definition of AT, as we know it today, was first defined in 1988 in the Tech Act. The term AT has continued to evolve with the passage of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004.
Introduction to Assistive Technology? • Any technology with the potential to enhance the performance of persons with disabilities. This includes a variety of devices and services that include adaptive and rehabilitative devices and processes used in selecting, locating and using them. • Assistive technology includes both low and high tech devices.
What is Assistive Technology? • The applications of science, engineering and other disciplines that result in processes, methods or inventions that support people with disabilities.
Assistive Technology Defined • Defined by Public Law 100-407 of IDEA • AT Device is any item, piece of equipment, or product system whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities • AT Service means any service that directly assists an individual with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an AT device.
INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT OF 1990, IDEA • This law stipulates that each public agency must ensure that the placement of every child with a handicapping condition be determined at least annually and be based on the child’s individualized education program.
Educational Programs • IDEA • IEP Team must “consider” the students need for AT and services to receive a free, appropriate education in the least restrictive environment. • IEP Team Considerations Pg. 25
“For people without disabilities, technology makes things easier, For people with disabilities, technology makes things possible” • IBM AT Training Package 1991
The New Jersey Regional Assistive Technology Training Centers • Trained Staff • Professional Development • AT Technology Expos • Regional Conferences • Drop-in Learning Centers • Resources Directories • Informational Web Sites
The Regional Assistive Technology Training Centers • North • Bergen County • Warren County • Central • Middlesex County • Ocean County • South • Camden County • Burlington County
Professional Development • Training for: • Teachers • Special Education Teams • Support Staff • Administrators • Parents and Parent Groups
Drop-in Center • Assistive Technology equipment and software available to “try before you buy” • Teachers • Administrators • Support Staff • Parents
Options that MUST be Considered for AT Assessment • Personal Concerns • Access Issues • Training Needs • Repair and Maintenance Needs • Financial Issues
What Types of Assistive Technology are available for my Student? • Assistive Technology for the Hearing Impaired • Assistive Technology for Physical Disabilities • Assistive Technology for Learning Disabilities • Assistive Technology for the Vision impaired • Assistive Technology for Computer Access
Types of Assistive Technology • Positioning • Mobility • Augmentative and Alternate Communication • Computer Access • Adaptive Toys and Games • Adaptive Environments • Instructional Aids
Chapter 1 Overview • AT has become a common venue by which all students access and meet the state curriculum standards defined by each state. The Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) created a program that provides educators a means to better understand how Universal Design for Learning and AT can be integrated to support student learning.
Chapter 1 Overview • Assessment for AT is provided by the school system if the student's Individual Education Program (IEP) team decides it is necessary in order to improve student outcomes. Funding for AT is provided by the school system or other agencies such as Medicare, Medicaid, and/or private insurance.
MISCONCEPTIONS • Assistive Technology is a cure-all • All Assistive Technology is “High Tech.” and expensive
Misconceptions • It’s only useful for people with certain kinds of disabilities • It’s only appropriate for children who are classified • Professionals are the best sources for information about assistive technology
AND MORE MISCONCEPTIONS • Assessment of technology needs is done only once • If a technology solution is available it will be used by student in school as well as home • People with disabilities want the latest gadgets
Historical Overview of Assistive Technology • Foundation Period: Pre 1900’s • Small Steps • “Making due” • Establishment of: • 1817-The American School for the Deaf • 1829/1834- Louis Braille • 1832- Perkins School for the Blind • 1869- Wheelchair Patent • 1877- Phonograph • 1877- Public Law 45-186 • Establishment Period: 1900-1972 • Inventions and Innovations • 1918-Soldier Rehabilitation Act • 1920-Optophone Reading Machine • Guide Dogs • Social Security Act-1935 • Rehabilitation Act of 1943-Training • 1952-Tellatouch Communication device • 1965 –National Commission on Architectural Barriers • Empowerment Period: 1973 to Present • Section 504
Law and Assistive Technology • Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988 • On June 23, 1988, Congressman Jim Jeffords of Vermont and Senator Tom Harkin of Iowa introduced the Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988. On August 19, 1988, President Reagan signed the Act and it became law, Public Law 100-407. The support for the legislation was very strong. People with disabilities, their families and advocates and those who direct or provide services to those with disabilities emphasized to Congress the importance of technology and support services in technology for people with disabilities. And although many people indicated that much "off-the-shelf" technology is available to assist people with disabilities, such technology, as well as other specialized or customized technology, more often than not, is not accessible. • Telecommunications Act of 1996 • Carl D. Perkins Vocational/Technical Education Act • Assistive Technology Act of 1998 • President Clinton signed the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-394) into law on Friday, November 13, 1998. The Technology Act of 1998 (ATA) affirms that technology is a valuable tool that can be used to improve the lives of Americans with disabilities. An assistive technology device is defined by the ATA as “any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.”
Law and Assistive Technology • Education for all Handicapped Children Act of 1975 • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990 • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997 • Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation. IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to more than 6.5 million eligible infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities. • Infants and toddlers with disabilities (birth-2) and their families receive early intervention services under IDEA Part C. Children and youth (ages 3-21) receive special education and related services under IDEA Part B.
Law and Assistive Technology • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 • Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 • No Child Left Behind Act of 2004
Low Tech Middle Tech, High Tech • Low-tech AT doesn't require much training, is often less expensive, and does not have complex or mechanical features. Examples of low-tech devices might include handheld magnifiers, large print text, paper and pen for communication, canes or walkers, color coding, automatic lights, and specialized pen or pencil grips.
Low Tech Middle Tech, High Tech • Middle-Tech AT may have some complex features, may be electronic or battery operated, may require some training, and is more expensive than the low-tech alternative. Some examples include manual wheelchairs, talking spell checkers, electronic organizers, larger computer monitors, books on tape, amplifiers, text pagers, closed-caption televisions, remote environmental controls, and a specialized mouse or keyboard for the computer.
No TechLow tech, High • High-tech AT refers to complex equipment that has digital or electronic components, may be computerized, will likely require training, and cost the most. Examples of high-tech AT include power wheelchairs or scooters, prosthetics, digital hearing aids, computers with specialized software for voice recognition or visual magnification, digital hands-free headsets, voice-activated telephones, communication devices with voices, and digital books or information on MP3 players.
Low/Light Tech Assistive Technology Devices • Highlighting tape or markers • Colored overlays • Slanted surface • 3D Letters • Magnetic Poetry • Pencil grip • 3D lined paper
High Tech Assistive Technology Devices • Computer Access • Alternative mice • On screen keyboards • Touch pad • Switch • Alternative keyboards • Intellikeys • Alphasmart • Windows Accessibility options • Reading and writing Software • Screen Reading
High Tech Assistive Technology Devices Reading and writing Software • Screen Reading • Wynn, Kursweil 3000 • Screen Magnifier • BigShot, ZoomText • Word Prediction • Co-writer, Text! Help Read and write • Graphic Organizational aids • Inspiration, Kidspiration • Auditory Feedback • Write out loud, Intellitalk
Is It High or Low…Tech ? • For Mobility • Wheelchairs and crutches • For Communication • Speech boards, a Braille restaurant menu, voice amplifiers and speakers, adaptive computer attachments and software. • Daily life aids • Straws, bathroom tub rails, environmental control devices
Chapter 3 • Early Intervention services are provided to children birth to 3 years of age. The Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP) is developed by a team, with strong input from the family. AT devices should be considered to enhance the child's access to the same activities as their typically developing peers. Parents, professionals, and other caregivers should be trained to use the AT device properly to avoid abandonment of the device.
Chapter 3 • AT should be used to provide the child with as much independence as possible with the focus being on the child rather than on the AT device. In looking at the five developmental domains (adaptive, cognitive, communication, physical, and social/emotional), a delay in one domain can affect development in other domains. Remember that AT can assist a child with a developmental delay so that the delay has minimal impact on the other domains.
Windows XP Accessibility Options • Screen Magnification • On Board Keyboard • Display • Mouse • Keys • Narrator
Windows Accessibility Options Internet Explorer • To change how Web page colors are displayed • On the Tools menu in Internet Explorer, click Internet Options. • On the General tab, click Colors. • Change the settings as needed.
Windows Accessibility Options Internet Explorer • To display Web page text larger or smaller • On the View menu, point to Text Size, and then click the size you want.
Remember • A disability is not a characteristic of a person, it is a description of the relationship between the person and the environment. • Assistive Technology enhances that relationship.
FUNDAMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCESS…FAP • Step 1 - Intake/Referral • Step 2 - Identification of Needs • Step 3 - Identification of Desired Outcome • Step 4 - Develop and Nurture Team Members • Step 5 - Skills Assessment • Step 6 - Device Trials • Step 7 - Revisit Desired Outcome • Step 8 - Procurement of Device • Step 9 - Technology Implementation • Step 10-Follow Up/ Follow Along • 1999 Associated Students California State University, Northridge, Inc.
SETT Framework • Student • Environment • Tasks • Tools
SETT Framework • Student • Environment • Tasks • Tools
FEAT • Functional Evaluation for Assistive Technology • Page 50
Chapter 4 • Assistive Technology Devices to Enhance Mobility for Individuals with Physical Impairments.
Assistive Technology Devices to Enhance Mobility for Individuals with Physical Impairments • Objectives • Describe how wheelchairs and other mobility units help people become mobile. • Describe the components of a wheelchair. • Explain seat and positioning issues.
Assistive Technology Devices to Enhance Mobility for Individuals with Physical Impairments • Making a Connection • Think about how you maneuver around during the course of a day. Where do you go? What obstacles do you sometimes encounter? How do you overcome those obstacles? • What if someone were confined to a wheelchair? • What are different types of mobility impairments • What Obstacles would they encounter? • How do they face those challenges? • How might those obstacles be over come with and without Mobility adaptations?
Assistive Technology Devices to Enhance Mobility for Individuals with Physical Impairments • Objective 1 • Describe how wheelchairs and other mobility units help people become mobile. • Function Loss in Lower Limbs • Unstable Posture • General Physical Problems
Assistive Technology Devices to Enhance Mobility for Individuals with Physical Impairments • Function Loss in Lower Limbs • Spinal Cord Injuries • TBI • Arthritis • Cerebral Palsy • Polio • Muscular Dystrophy • Stroke • Amputation • Multiple Sclerosis • Unstable Posture • General Physical Problems
Assistive Technology Devices to Enhance Mobility for Individuals with Physical Impairments • Function Loss in Lower Limbs • Unstable Posture • Brain Trauma, Cerebral Palsy can cause unstable posture • Individuals may stand and/or walk. • General Physical Problems
Assistive Technology Devices to Enhance Mobility for Individuals with Physical Impairments • Function Loss in Lower Limbs • Unstable Posture • General Physical Problems • Temporary use • Surgeries • Obesity • Heart • Elderly
Assistive Technology Devices to Enhance Mobility for Individuals with Physical Impairments • Objective 2 • Describe the components of a wheelchair. • Types • Manual Wheelchair • Rigid • Folding • Everyday Wheelchair • Sport Wheelchair • Junior Wheelchair • Racing Wheelchair
Assistive Technology Devices to Enhance Mobility for Individuals with Physical Impairments