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Evolution. The theory that organisms have changed gradually over time. Evidence to support the Theory of Evolution. Fossil Record - Law of Superposition Comparative Anatomy: Homologous Structures Analogous Body Structures Vestigial Body Structures Comparative Embryology

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Evolution

Evolution

The theory that organisms have changed gradually over time.


Evidence to support the theory of evolution
Evidence to support the Theory of Evolution

  • Fossil Record - Law of Superposition

  • Comparative Anatomy:

    • Homologous Structures

    • Analogous Body Structures

    • Vestigial Body Structures

  • Comparative Embryology

  • Comparative Biochemistry (genes/proteins)

  • Direct Observation


Fossil record
Fossil Record

  • Evidence of change over time

  • Relative age of extinct organisms

  • Age of the Earth


Law of superposition older fossils in bottom layers younger ones in upper layers
Law of Superposition: Older fossils in bottom layers; younger ones in upper layers



Fossil evidence
Fossil Evidence:

  • Once living remains of organisms

  • Limited:

  • Type of material preserved (bone, shell, impressions, amber)

  • Incomplete record

  • Easily disrupted


Comparative anatomy
Comparative Anatomy

  • Compares structures of different organisms living today


  • Homologous Structures – Parts on different organisms that are similar in structure (and sometimes function) and seem to indicate common origin – common ancestor.

  • Indicate divergent evolution – things becoming more different.


2. Analogous Structures – similar in function and appearance, but not in origin.

Illustrate convergent evolution – things becoming more similar.

Bird Wing

Fly wing



3 vestigial organs traces of homologous structures no apparent use
3. Vestigial Organs - traces of homologous structures; no apparent use.



Comparative embryology1
Comparative Embryology

  • shows early developmental stages in embryos of different vertebrate species is very similar

  • Inherited same basic body plan from a common ancestor

  • Become distinct at later stages


Genetic evidence
Genetic Evidence

  • Each new generation of organisms in a population shows some change or variation as a result of:

    • Mutations

    • Meiosis & fertilization


Comparative biochemistry
Comparative Biochemistry

Similar organic compounds (proteins, etc.)

Humans and chimp DNA – 98% similar

Humans and other mammals – 80% similar


Direct observation
Direct Observation

Rapid evolution

  • Antibiotic resistant bacteria

  • Resistance of insects to pesticides

  • HIV strains


How does evolution occur lamarckism vs darwinism
How does evolution occur?Lamarckism vs. Darwinism

  • Jean Baptist Lamarck (1744 – 1829)

    • “Acquired Characteristics” develop and are passed on to offspring.

    • Experimentation failed to support Lamarckism



Influences on darwin
Influences on Darwin

  • 1. Worked as naturalist on HMS Beagle for 5 year voyage

    • Collected fossils and specimens

    • Noted tremendous biodiversity

    • Galapagos organisms unique yet similar to species elsewhere

    • Formulated his idea of “Descent with Modification” (changes occur from one group of descendants to the next)




2. Studied Charles Lyell – Geologist who said,

“The present is the key to the past.” The same forces acting on earth in the past are continuing today.


3 studied work of thomas malthus 1798
3. Studied work of Thomas Malthus - 1798

  • Human population growing faster than food supply - creates competition

  • Darwin extended idea to other organisms.




6 noted artificial selection
6. Noted Artificial Selection survive

  • Farmers and breeders practice selective breeding to produce preferred offspring.


  • Darwin questioned survive

    • Is there a force in nature that simulates artificial selection???


Adaptations survive are physical or behavioral traits that make an organism better able to survive in its environment.

Sea Dragon

www.liverpoolmuseum.org/uk

Cryptic Frog

www.howstuffworks.com

Walking Stick

www.howstuffworks.com

Tartan Hawkfish

www.howstuffworks.com


On the origin of species by means of natural selection published in 1859
“On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection” published in 1859

  • Summary of Theory of Natural Selection:

    1. Overproduction of Offspring (more produced than can survive)

    2. Variation within a population

    3. Struggle to survive creating competition

    4. Successful reproduction - Individuals with better adaptations pass these on to offspring (survival of the fittest)


Phylogenetic

Tree

Darwin envisioned the tree of life


Sources of variation
Sources of Variation

  • S– sexual reproduction

  • C – crossing over during meiosis

  • A – assortment of alleles during meiosis

  • M - mutations


Pepper moths england
Pepper Moths - England

  • Original color – 99% white (white bark on trees)

  • Industrial Revolution, 1850s – produced smog

  • Environment changes - 1890s - 99% black (dark bark on trees)



Gene Pools same gene pool.

Which trait was a better adaptation and so selected for?

How did this affect the frequencies of the different alleles?


Population genetics
Population Genetics same gene pool.

  • Natural Selection acts on individuals, BUT

    populations evolve

  • An individual’s genotype remains constant

  • A population’s gene pool (entire collection of genes in a population) evolves as allelefrequencies change due to natural selection


History of earth
History of Earth same gene pool.

  • Earth is @ 4.6 billion years old –

  • Early earth –

    • hostile environment – volcanoes, lightning, meteorites, UV light

    • Primitive atmosphere: CH4, NH3, H2, H2O,

  • All elements for life present – but no pure oxygen


Origin of life
Origin of Life same gene pool.

Primordial soup hypothesis: Primitive atmosphere filled with carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, water vapor - bombarded by lightning and uv radiation, producing organic compounds and precursors to first cells, which ended up in oceans


  • Stanley Miller’s Experiment same gene pool.1953 – University of Chicago

  • After 1 week simple organic compounds including amino acids were present


Origins of life oceans as nursery
Origins of Life: Oceans as Nursery same gene pool.

Simple compounds

Complex compounds

Primitive precells

Prokaryotes


Prokaryotes to eukaryotes
Prokaryotes to Eukaryotes same gene pool.

  • First were heterotrophic prokaryotes which absorbed simple organic compounds.

  • Next, chemosynthetic prokaryotes

  • Next, photosynthetic autotrophs which produced oxygen

  • Led to development of eukaryotes and more complex organisms


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