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The Expansion of Canada . By: Group Four 8-26. Table of Contents. Rupert’s Land: Canada’s Interest in it Red River Resistance and Louis Riel Métis’ List of Rights Manitoba Act of 1870 New Caledonia (British Columbia) Newfoundland and the anti-confederation song

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by group four 8 26
The Expansion of Canada

By: Group Four


Table of Contents
  • Rupert’s Land: Canada’s Interest in it
  • Red River Resistance and Louis Riel
  • Métis’ List of Rights
  • Manitoba Act of 1870
  • New Caledonia (British Columbia)
  • Newfoundland and the anti-confederation song
  • Prince Edward Island Act of 1873
  • The Pacific Scandal
  • Alexander Mackenzie
  • Sir John A. Returns: National Policy
  • The Canadian Pacific Railway
  • The Need for the North West Mounted Police
  • Seven Treaties
  • Bibliography
rupert s land and the act of 1868
Rupert’s Land and the Act of 1868
  • Good Farmland
      • New farmers started to look farther west, away from Ontario
  • Canadian government’s goals
      • Expand Canada from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean
  • Losing Rupert’s Land to the United States of America
      • Americans would gain control of Rupert’s Land
  • The Act of 1868
      • Allowed British government to transfer Hudson’s Bay Company lands to theCanadian government (1869)
      • Hudson’s Bay company also kept its fur forts and was given large land grants in the West
      • After gaining control of land, Canadian government decided to call this area the North-West Territories

Parts of Minnesota and North Dakota, all of Manitoba, most of Saskatchewan, northern Alberta, eastern Nunavut territory, and northern parts of Ontario and Quebec

red river resistance and louis riel
Red River Resistance and Louis Riel
  • Name given to events surrounding actions of provisional government (present-day Manitoba)
  • He worked with Métis to revise List of Rights
  • Louis Riel became leader of Métis
  • Prime goal was to bargain with Canadian government to keep/up bring Métis land and culture rights
  • First act was to stop newly appointed lieutenant governor from entering Red River-1869
  • After seizing Fort Garry, Métis had control of settlement (no battles took place)

Governing Council (Louis Riel third from left in center row)

m tis list of rights
Outlined a list of conditions that they wanted the government to meet and ensure would be followed

The right to:

Elect their own legislative assembly

Right to approve or reject any federal government laws affecting Red River area

Elect local officials such as sheriffs or constables

Have land set aside for schools, roads, public buildings

Have Winnipeg connected to nearest railroad

Métis List of Rights
  • Amnesty be granted for actions occurring during Resistance
  • All existing customs, rights and privileges remain after joining Canada
  • Basically, called for Provincial status as defined under British North America Act
manitoba act of 1870
Created and entered Confederation after Red River Resistance-1870

Métis wanted area to become province because provinces had greater control over provincial affairs (more than territories)

Major defeat for federal government

Many point from List of Rights became part of Act

Both French and English were to become official languages

Government slow in distributing promised land grants to Métis

Manitoba Act of 1870
new caledonia british columbia
New Caledonia (British Columbia)
  • Had few fur forts and was unnecessary to declare it a colony.
  • 1858- gold rush in lower Fraser River brought over 130, 000 miners to New Caledonia.
  • 1858- New Caledonia became a colony and was renamed as British Columbia.
  • 1860- main industries left were farming, coal mining, and lumbering.which could not make up for lack of gold.
  • British afraid that Americans would take British Columbia
  • British concluded that British Columbia should join Canada in order to preserve its link with Britain
british colony of newfoundland and anti confederation song
People not interested in confederation

British showed no interest in growth of Newfoundland’s population growth (settlement not encouraged and confederation rejected)

Newfoundland not want confederation because:

Afraid of losing government funded separate schools

Against political changed that might increase taxes or restrict freedom to choose own trading partners

They were pleased that Great Britain had granted responsible government and didn’t want to abandon it

Newfoundland joined confederation in 1949

Men, hurrah for our own native Isle, Newfoundland,Not a stranger shall hold one inch of her strand;Her face turns to Britain, her Back to the Gulf,Come near at your peril, Canadian Wolf!Cheap tea and molasses they say they will give,All taxes taken off that the poor man may live -Cheap nails and cheap lumber, our coffins to make,And homespun to mend our old clothes when they break.If they take off all taxes, how then will they meetThe heavy expenses on Army and fleet? Just give them the chance to get into the scrap, They'll show you the trick with pen, ink and red tape.Would you barter the right that your fathers have won?No! let them descend from father to son.For a few thousand dollars Canadian goldDon't let it be said that our birthright was sold.

British Colony of Newfoundland (and Anti-confederation Song)
british colony of prince edward island act of 1873
British Colony of Prince Edward Island Act of 1873
  • Confederation: July 1, 1873
  • No celebration or even interest in confederation
  • Seventh province to join confederation
the pacific scandal
The Pacific Scandal
  • April 1873- government charged with accepting illegal funds from Sir Hugh Allan
  • In turn for payment, Allan assured he would win Lucrative contract to build Canadian Pacific Railway
  • Awareness of incident, proven by Opposition party, known as Pacific Scandal
alexander mackenzie
Prime minister (1873 &1878)- Liberals

1873- Macdonald’s government fell as result of Pacific Scandal

Became Canada’s second prime minister


Supreme court of Canada

Royal military

Practice pf voting

Alexander Mackenzie
sir john a returns national policy
Protective tariffs (highly important duties/taxes):

Encourage industrial development by allowing raw mtrls. in cheaply

CDN industries would sell more of own goods

National railway

Take settlers to West and bring crops to East

1880- Canadian Pacific Railway

Transcontinental railway (Montreal to B.C)

Settlement of West

Dominion Land Act- gave settlers 64 hectare land for $10 registration fee

Sir John A. Returns: National Policy
the expensive canadian pacific railway 1885
Part of Macdonald’s policy: “From Sea to Sea”

With railway, settlers came into Western Canada

Fulfilled CDN government’s promise to bring B.C. into confederation

The Expensive Canadian Pacific Railway (1885)

William Cornelius Van Horne- made it all possible

the need for the north west mounted police of 1873
The Need for the North West Mounted Police of 1873
  • Government concerned about American settlers coming North and making north-west part of Canada belong to U.S.A
  • Incident on Cypress Hills showed need for police force
  • Accomplishments:
    • Force whiskey-smugglers to leave
    • Tracked down lawbreakers
    • Gained trust of Native leaders
    • Assistance in treaty negotiations with Western tribes
seven treaties 1871 1877
Prime minister John A. Macdonald believed that the first people should be assimilated or become Canadian

In 1869 Canadian government bought Hudson’s Bay Company’s claiming to Rupert’s Land

4 treaties signed between 1889 and 1921

In 1876 first Indian Act was passed

Seven Treaties (1871-1877)
importance to nationhood
Importance to Nationhood
  • Rupert’s Land act: expanded from Pacific to Atlantic ocean
  • Red River Resistance: Creation of Manitoba
  • Métis list of rights: Many ideas from list of rights is claimed as our own today
  • New Caledonia: allowed Canada to keep link with Britain and let B.C. join Dominion of Canada
  • Newfoundland: useful fishing industry and establishment of sixth province
  • P.E.I: we can now use Atlantic Coast as entrance for immigration
  • Pacific Scandal: opened us up to option of Alexander Mackenzie (conservative)
  • Alexander Mackenzie: kept good relationship with Native people
  • Canadian Pacific Railway: built easy transportation from coast to coast