options for treating monitoring of hazardous materials n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
OPTIONS FOR TREATING & MONITORING OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
OPTIONS FOR TREATING & MONITORING OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 65

OPTIONS FOR TREATING & MONITORING OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 166 Views
  • Uploaded on

OPTIONS FOR TREATING & MONITORING OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. SEPARATION PROCESSES. BASIC CONCEPTS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PURITY THE FRACTION NEEDS TO BE REMOVED TO MEET TARGET CONCENTRATIONS THE CONCENTRATION OF THE RECOVERED BYPRODUCT. SEPARATION PROCESSES. SEPARATION PROCESSES.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'OPTIONS FOR TREATING & MONITORING OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS' - dalmar


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
separation processes
SEPARATION PROCESSES
  • BASIC CONCEPTS
  • SPECIFICATIONS FOR PURITY
  • THE FRACTION NEEDS TO BE REMOVED TO MEET TARGET CONCENTRATIONS
  • THE CONCENTRATION OF THE RECOVERED BYPRODUCT
separation processes2
SEPARATION PROCESSES
  • SEPARATION FACTOR
  • WHICH IS ALSO CALLED THE DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENT
separation factor
SEPARATION FACTOR
  • WHAT THE VALUE MEANS
separation factor1
SEPARATION FACTOR
  • THE SEPARATION IS A RESULT OF EITHER
    • CHANGE IN CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
    • TRANSPORT RATE GOVERNED PROCESS
    • MECHANICAL SEPARATION
separation processes3
SEPARATION PROCESSES
  • PROCESSES CAN BE USED IN SERIES OR PARALLEL TO SEPARATE COMPLEX MIXTURES AND CAN INCLUDE RECYCLE OF STREAMS
mechanical separations
MECHANICAL SEPARATIONS
  • IMPOSE SOME FORCE ON THE SYSTEM TO OBTAIN SEPARATIONS
example of specialization filtration
EXAMPLE OF SPECIALIZATION - FILTRATION
  • CONVENTIONAL FILTRATION
    • REMOVES PARTICULATE BASED ON THE OPEN AREA IN THE FLOW CROSS-SECTION
    • CAN BE MADE OF MANY MATERIALS
    • CAN BE CONTINUOUS, LIKE BELTS, OR BATCH, LIKE A SAND FILTER
conventional filtration separation parameters2
CONVENTIONAL FILTRATION SEPARATION PARAMETERS
  • UNITS ARE DESIGNED TO MAXIMIZE FLOW PER UNIT AREA (FLUX) FOR SPECIFIED PARTICULATE SIZES IN SPECIFIED FLUID
  • CAN BE ENHANCED BY USE OF VACUUM
microfiltration
MICROFILTRATION
  • SEPARATION OF PARTICLES OF ONE SIZE FROM PARTICLES OF ANOTHER SIZE IN THE RANGE OF APPROXIMATELY 0.01 µTHROUGH 20 µ
  • THE FLUID MAY BE EITHER A LIQUID OR A GAS
microfiltration1
MICROFILTRATION
  • FLOW PATTERNS
    • CROSSFLOW SEPARATION
      • A FLUID STREAM RUNS PARALLEL TO A MEMBRANE.
      • THERE IS A PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL ACROSS THE MEMBRANE.
      • THIS CAUSES SOME OF THE FLUID TO PASS THROUGH THE MEMBRANE, WHILE THE REMAINDER CONTINUES ACROSS THE MEMBRANE, CLEANING IT.
    • DEAD-END FILTRATION OR PERPENDICULAR FILTRATION.
      • IN DEAD-END FILTRATION, ALL OF THE FLUID PASSES THROUGH THE MEMBRANE
      • ALL OF THE PARTICLES THAT CANNOT FIT THROUGH THE PORES OF THE MEMBRANE ARE STOPPED
microfiltration2
MICROFILTRATION
  • CONSTRUCTION
    • MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION - MEMBRANE FILTERS CAN BE MANUFACTURED OF
      • VARIOUS POLYMERIC MATERIALS
      • METALS
      • CERAMICS
microfiltration membranes
MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANES
  • PORE STRUCTURE
    • MEMBRANES WITH CAPILLARY-TYPE PORES
      • CALLED SCREEN MEMBRANES
      • PREFERRED FOR APPLICATIONS INCLUDING OPTICAL AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, CHEMOTAXIS, EXFOLIATIVE CYTOLOGY, PARTICULATE ANALYSES, AEROSOL ANALYSES, GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSES AND BLOOD RHEOLOGY
microfiltration membranes1
MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANES
  • PORE STRUCTURE
    • MEMBRANES WITH TORTUOUS-TYPE PORES
      • CALLED DEPTH MEMBRANES.
      • LABYRINTH OF INTERCONNECTING ISOTROPIC PORES
      • RECOMMENDED FOR GENERAL PRECISION FILTRATIONS, ELECTROPHORESIS, STERILIZATION OF FLUIDS, CULTURING OF MICROORGANISMS
ultrafiltration 3
ULTRAFILTRATION3
  • ALSO CALLED MOLECULAR FILTRATION
    • USED TO SEGREGATE SUBSTANCES ACCORDING TO MOLECULAR WEIGHT (MW) AND SIZE
    • BASED ON A PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL ACROSS THE SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE TO DRIVE PERMEABLE MATERIALS THROUGH THE MEMBRANE
    • MEMBRANES USED IN MOLECULAR FILTRATION HAVE PORE DIAMETERS RANGING FROM 1 TO 1,000 ANGSTROMS (Å).
ultrafiltration
ULTRAFILTRATION
  • WILL SEPARATE PARTICLES RANGING FROM 100 TO 106 DALTONS
  • PARTICLES WITH MW OR SIZE LESS THAN THE MEMBRANE MOLECULAR WEIGHT CUT OFF (MWCO)PASS THROUGH THE MEMBRANE AND EMERGE AS PERMEATE
  • SOLUTES WITH GREATER MW OR SIZE ARE RETAINED BY THE MEMBRANE AS RETENTATE AND ARE CONCENTRATED DURING THE MOLECULAR FILTRATION PROCESS.
ultrafiltration1
ULTRAFILTRATION
  • TYPICAL SEPARATION CAPABILITY
reverse osmosis
REVERSE OSMOSIS
  • HYPERFILTRATION, IS THE FINEST FILTRATION KNOWN
  • PROCESS WILL ALLOW THE REMOVAL OF PARTICLES AS SMALL AS IONS FROM A SOLUTION
  • USED TO PURIFY WATER AND REMOVE SALTS AND OTHER IMPURITIES IN ORDER TO IMPROVE THE COLOR, TASTE OR PROPERTIES OF THE FLUID
  • CAN BE USED TO PURIFY FLUIDS SUCH AS ETHANOL AND GLYCOL, WHICH WILL PASS THROUGH THE REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANE, WHILE REJECTING OTHER IONS AND CONTAMINANTS
reverse osmosis1
REVERSE OSMOSIS
  • USES A MEMBRANE THAT IS SEMI-PERMEABLE
  • CAPABLE OF REJECTING BACTERIA, SALTS, SUGARS, PROTEINS, PARTICLES, DYES, AND OTHER CONSTITUENTS THAT HAVE A MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF GREATER THAN 150-250 DALTONS
reverse osmosis3
REVERSE OSMOSIS
  • SEPARATION OF IONS WITH REVERSE OSMOSIS IS AIDED BY CHARGED PARTICLES
    • DISSOLVED IONS THAT CARRY A CHARGE, SUCH AS SALTS, ARE MORE LIKELY TO BE REJECTED BY THE MEMBRANE THAN THOSE THAT ARE NOT CHARGED, LIKE ORGANICS
    • THE LARGER THE CHARGE AND THE LARGER THE PARTICLE, THE MORE LIKELY IT WILL BE REJECTED
nanofiltration
NANOFILTRATION
  • FORM OF FILTRATION THAT USES MEMBRANES TO PREFERENTIALLY SEPARATE DIFFERENT FLUIDS OR IONS
  • NOT AS FINE A FILTRATION PROCESS AS REVERSE OSMOSIS, BUT IT ALSO DOES NOT REQUIRE THE SAME ENERGY TO PERFORM THE SEPARATION
nanofiltration1
NANOFILTRATION
  • USES A MEMBRANE THAT IS PARTIALLY PERMEABLE TO PERFORM THE SEPARATION, BUT THE MEMBRANE'S PORES ARE TYPICALLY MUCH LARGER THAN THE MEMBRANE PORES THAT ARE USED IN REVERSE OSMOSIS.
  • USED TO SEPARATE A SOLUTION THAT HAS A MIXTURE OF SOME DESIRABLE COMPONENTS AND SOME THAT ARE NOT DESIRABLE
nanofiltration2
NANOFILTRATION
  • EXAMPLE IS THE CONCENTRATION OF CORN SYRUP
  • NANOFILTRATION MEMBRANE ALLOWS THE WATER TO PASS THROUGH THE MEMBRANE WHILE HOLDING THE SUGAR BACK, CONCENTRATING THE SOLUTION
nanofiltration3
NANOFILTRATION
  • CAPABLE OF CONCENTRATING SUGARS, DIVALENT SALTS, BACTERIA, PROTEINS, PARTICLES, DYES, AND OTHER CONSTITUENTS THAT HAVE A MOLECULAR WEIGHT GREATER THAN 1000 DALTONS.
  • NANOFILTRATION IS AFFECTED BY THE CHARGE OF THE PARTICLES BEING REJECTED
    • PARTICLES WITH LARGER CHARGES ARE MORE LIKELY TO BE REJECTED THAN OTHERS
    • NOT EFFECTIVE ON SMALL MOLECULAR WEIGHT ORGANICS, SUCH AS METHANOL.
nanofiltration4
NANOFILTRATION
  • COMPARISON OF ULTRAFILTRATION, NANOFILTRATION AND REVERSE OSMOSIS5
electrodyalysis 6 7
ELECTRODYALYSIS6,7
  • ELECTROMEMBRANE PROCESS
    • IONS ARE TRANSPORTED THROUGH ION PERMEABLE MEMBRANES FROM ONE SOLUTION TO ANOTHER UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF A POTENTIAL GRADIENT
    • ELECTRICAL CHARGES ON THE IONS ALLOW THEM TO BE DRIVEN THROUGH THE MEMBRANES FABRICATED FROM ION EXCHANGE POLYMERS
    • APPLYING A VOLTAGE BETWEEN TWO END ELECTRODES GENERATES THE POTENTIAL FIELD REQUIRED FOR THIS
electrodyalysis1
ELECTRODYALYSIS
  • GENERAL APPLICATIONS
    • MEMBRANES USED IN ELECTRODIALYSIS HAVE THE ABILITY TO
      • SELECTIVELY TRANSPORT IONS HAVING POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE CHARGE
      • REJECT IONS OF THE OPPOSITE CHARGE
      • CONCENTRATION, REMOVAL, OR SEPARATION OF ELECTROLYTES
electrodyalysis2
ELECTRODYALYSIS
  • SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS
    • DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT
    • PROCESSING FOOD
    • CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS.
equilibrium separation methods
EQUILIBRIUM SEPARATION METHODS
  • THESE INCLUDE ALL THE PROCESSES THAT CHANGE PROCESS CONDITIONS TO AFFECT A CHANGE IN THE CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM IN THE SYSTEM
    • THEY INVOLVE THE MIXING OF TWO PHASES AT AN INTERFACE
    • THE SEPARATION RESULTS IN A TARGET COMPONENT INCREASING IN AMOUNT (CONCENTRATION) IN ONE PHASE AND DECREASING IN AMOUNT IN THE OTHER PHASE
equilibrium separation methods1
EQUILIBRIUM SEPARATION METHODS
  • THE NUMBER OF PROCESSES IN EACH GROUP IS IN THE HUNDREDS
examples of separation processes
EXAMPLES OF SEPARATION PROCESSES
  • EVAPORATION
    • INDUCES A PHASE CHANGE BY HEATING
    • MORE VOLATILE COMPONENTS GO TO THE VAPOR PHASE
    • LESS VOLATILE COMPONENTS GO TO THE LIQUID PHASE
evaporation1
EVAPORATION
  • TYPICAL EQUILIBRIUM DIAGRAM
liquid liquid extraction
LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION
  • MIXING OF TWO IMMISCIBLE LIQUID PHASES
  • MOBILE COMPONENT DISTRIBUTES BETWEEN THE TWO PHASES
liquid liquid extraction1
LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION
  • TYPICAL EQUILIBRIUM DIAGRAMS
  • TAKEN FROM: Treybal, R. E., Mass-Transfer Operations, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill, 1968
liquid liquid extraction2
LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION
  • TYPICAL PROCESS FLOWSHEET
crystallization
CRYSTALLIZATION
  • SOLUTIONS ARE SUPERSATURATED SO THAT CRYSTALLIZATION CAN OCCUR
  • TYPICAL METHOD IS A COMBINATION OF HEATING AND VACUUM
  • AS THE SOLUTION IS COOLED, THE CRYSTAL WILL PRECIPITATE OUT ON SEED NUCLEI OR EXISTING CRYSTALS
crystallization1
CRYSTALLIZATION
  • TYPICAL EQUILIBRIUM DIAGRAM
crystallization2
CRYSTALLIZATION
  • USING THE EQUILIBRIUM DIAGRAM
      • IT HAS 11 REGIONS WHICH REPRESENT DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS OF SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, AND COMPOSITIONS
      • THE UPPER LEFT "LIQUID SOLUTION" REGION REPRESENTS MAGNESIUM SULFATE DISSOLVED IN WATER
      • AT ANY TEMPERATURE, A VARIETY OF COMPOSITIONS ARE POSSIBLE
crystallization3
CRYSTALLIZATION
  • USING THE EQUILIBRIUM DIAGRAM
    • THE MAIN CURVED LINE (E, P1, P2, P3) IS THE SATURATION CURVE
    • AT 300 K, A SATURATED SOLUTION WILL HAVE ABOUT 0.3 G SULFATE/G SOLUTION.
    • RIGHT OF THE MINIMUM, THE CURVE REPRESENTS THE SOLUBILITY OF SULFATE IN WATER
    • LEFT OF THE MINIMUM REPRESENTS THE SOLUBILITY OF WATER IN SULFATE
using the equilibrium diagram
USING THE EQUILIBRIUM DIAGRAM
  • REGIONS THE RIGHT OF THE SATURATION CURVE REPRESENT SOLID-LIQUID AND SOLID-SOLID MIXTURES
    • THERE ARE ONLY TWO POSSIBLE SOLID COMPOSITION FOR CRYSTALS AND COMPOSITIONS OF THESE REGIONS ARE READ AT THE SIDES
    • EITHER ANHYDROUS MAGNESIUM SULFATE
    • OR MAGNESIUM SULFATE HEPTAHYDRATE
using the equilibrium diagram1
USING THE EQUILIBRIUM DIAGRAM
  • REGIONS AT THE BOTTOM AND THE FAR RIGHT REPRESENT COMPLETE SOLIDIFICATION TO FORM VARIOUS SOLID PHASES
  • THE TRIANGLE AT THE LOWER LEFT REPRESENTS MIXTURES OF (WATER) ICE AND SATURATED SOLUTION
using the equilibrium diagram2
USING THE EQUILIBRIUM DIAGRAM
  • THE MINIMUM POINT ON THE SOLUBILITY CURVE (PT. E) IS CALLED THE EUTECTIC AND IT IS UNIQUE IN THE SYSTEM
    • THIS POINT, THE LIQUID AND SOLID PHASES HAVE THE SAME COMPOSITION
    • COORDINATES OF THE EUTECTIC POINT ARE THE EUTECTIC TEMPERATURE AND THE EUTECTIC COMPOSITUSING THE EQUILIBRIUM DIAGRAM
    • BOTH
    • ION
leaching
LEACHING
  • A PROCESS SIMILAR TO LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION EXCEPT THE SOLUTE (COMPOUND OF INTEREST) DISTRIBUTES BETWEEN AN IMMISCIBLE SOLID AND LIQUID PHASE
  • LIQUID SOLVENT LEACHES THE SOLUTE OUT OF THE SOLID
adsorption
ADSORPTION
  • PROCESS THAT IS THE OPPOSITE OF LEACHING BECAUSE THE SOLUTE IS TRANSFERRED TO THE SOLID PHASE
  • TYPICAL PROCESS IS BATCH WITH PARALLEL UNITS
    • ONE UNIT IS ADSORBING SOLUTE
    • THE OTHER IS BEING REGENERATED
adsorption1
ADSORPTION
  • CAN BE USED FOR REMOVING MATERIALS FROM LIQUIDS OR GASES
    • FOR GASES IT IS POSSIBLE TO REGENERATE USING REDUCED PRESSURE
    • FOR LIQUIDS OR GASES, REGENERATION CAN BE OBTAINED BY HEATING
adsorption2
ADSORPTION
  • MODEL OF THE PROCESS
adsorption3
ADSORPTION
  • CHROMATOGRAPHY IS A VARIATION ON ADSORPTION
  • TYPICAL EXAMPLE SHOWING CFC’S MEASURED IN THE AIR AT UPPER ELEVATIONS8
rate based separation processes
RATE BASED SEPARATION PROCESSES
  • PROCESSES THAT USE THE RELATIVE RATE OF PERMEATION OF COMPONENTS THROUGH A MEMBRANE AS A BASIS FOR SEPARATION
    • TYPICALLY ONE COMPONENT HAS A HIGHER LEVEL OF SOLUBILITY IN THE MEMBRANE THAN THE OTHER, SO IT IS MORE READILY ABSORBED
    • DIFFUSIVITY IS ALSO A FACTOR, AS THE COMPONENTS NEED TO MOVE THROUGH THE MEMBRANE
rate based separation processes1
RATE BASED SEPARATION PROCESSES
  • TOTAL FLUX IS GENERALLY AFFECTED BY SYSTEM PRESSURES
  • MANY OF THESE PROCESSES WERE DISCUSSED IN THE FILTRATION SECTION I.
rate based separation processes2
RATE BASED SEPARATION PROCESSES
  • SUMMARY OF TYPICAL PROCESSES
example of extreme concentration
EXAMPLE OF EXTREME CONCENTRATION
  • FOR RECOVERY OF t-Pa (TISSUE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR)
  • INCLUDES FOUR STEPS TO CONCENTRATE BY 1800 TIMES
example of concentrations in natural materials
EXAMPLE OF CONCENTRATIONS IN NATURAL MATERIALS
  • DATA ON THE FOLLOWING TABLE INDICATES COMPONENTS FOUND IN GRAPES9
example of concentrations in natural materials1
EXAMPLE OF CONCENTRATIONS IN NATURAL MATERIALS
  • SIMILAR DATA IS ALSO AVAILABLE FOR STRAWBERRIES10