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2010. First Responder Awareness (FRA). Instructors: Jerry Earley, CIH Gary Duran. Intro to Hazardous Materials. At the. First Responder. Awareness Level. The Haz Mat Problem. Use/misuse of Haz Mats create “Events” Modern standard of living requires Haz Mat use and transport

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First Responder Awareness (FRA)

Instructors: Jerry Earley, CIH

Gary Duran

intro to hazardous materials
Intro to Hazardous Materials

At the

First Responder

Awareness Level

the haz mat problem
The Haz Mat Problem
  • Use/misuse of Haz Mats create “Events”
    • Modern standard of living requires Haz Mat use and transport
    • “Events”* will happen
      • *(accidents/emergencies/incidents)
the haz mat problem4
The Haz Mat Problem
  • Over 16 million chemicals in existence
    • 70,000 potentially classified as “hazardous”
elements of hazmat problem
Elements of Hazmat Problem
  • Volume of hazardous materials
  • The human factor
  • “Events” will happen!
three primary risks
Three Primary Risks
  • Life/Health
  • Environment
  • Property
the haz mat problem7
The Haz Mat Problem
  • We can’t eliminate events, but can
    • Mitigate events
    • Prepare for events
    • Effectively & efficiently respond
the haz mat problem8

Ms. Gump, your boy’s “different”...

The Haz Mat Problem
  • Haz Mat events are “different”…
    • Must respond safely, slowly & methodically
what is hazardous
What is “Hazardous”?
  • No one universal definition for, BUT:
  • UN System helps classify them
    • 9 hazard classes




Misc. Dangerous Substances


Compressed Gases



hazard classes w examples
Hazard Classes w/Examples







explosives class 1
Explosives (Class 1)
  • Trinitrotoluene (TNT)
  • Black Powder
  • Lead azide
  • ANFO
  • PETN
gases class 2
Gases (Class 2)
  • Anhydrous Ammonia
  • Hydrogen Sulfide
  • Phosgene
  • Acetylene
  • Diborane
flammable combustible liquids class 3
Flammable/Combustible Liquids (Class 3)
  • Gasoline
  • Alcoholic Beverages
  • Hydrazine
  • Toluene
  • Acetone
flammable solids class 4
Flammable Solids (Class 4)
  • Aluminum phosphide
  • Naphthalene
  • Sodium
  • Barium
  • Carbon
oxidizers organic peroxides class 5
Oxidizers & Organic Peroxides (Class 5)
  • Red Fuming Nitric Acid
  • Nitrogen tetroxide
  • Potassium nitrate
  • Calcium Nitrate
  • Fluorine
poisonous infections materials class 6
Poisonous & Infections Materials (Class 6)
  • Hydrazine
  • Nicotine
  • Acrolein
  • Fluorine
  • Bromine
radioactive materials class 7
Radioactive Materials (Class 7)
  • Uranium Hexafluoride
  • Thorium
corrosive materials class 8
Corrosive Materials (Class 8)
  • Red Fuming Nitric Acid
  • Sodium hydroxide
  • Sulfuric Acid
  • Hydrazine
  • Bromine
misc hazardous materials class 9



Misc. Hazardous Materials (Class 9)
  • Ammonium nitrate fertilizers
  • Hazardous waste
  • Wheelchairs
  • Automobiles
  • Asbestos
multiple hazards health effects
Multiple Hazards & Health Effects
  • Regulations are performance standards
  • More than one hazard class
  • Markings don’t show all hazards
  • Think of multiple hazards always!
haz mat commons
Haz Mat Commons
  • Most common:
    • Release: Petroleum products
    • Locations: Fixed facilities
    • Factor: Collision/Overturn
haz mat typicals
Haz Mat Typicals
  • The typical:
    • Responder exposure: Inhalation
    • Number of response agencies: Four
    • Response problem: Poor management!
first responder s role
First Responder’s Role
  • Primary First Responder role
    • Safely and competently respond
    • Within appropriate —
      • level
      • resources
      • and capabilities
first responder awareness
First Responder Awareness
  • OSHA definition
    • Likely to witness/discover a release
    • Can initiate notifying authorities
    • Take no further actions
other levels
Other Levels
  • FRO
  • TECH
all levels have limits
All Levels Have Limits
  • Mission/Assignment
  • Training
  • Equipment
know your
Know Your…
  • Level
  • Role
  • Responsibility
  • Limits
pertinent laws regs
Pertinent Laws & Regs
  • Title 8 CCR 5192(q)
    • Safety/Planning/Response/Training
  • VC 2454
    • IC for incidents on Highway/Road
  • VC 2453, H&SC 6.95, SARA III §304
    • Planning & Notifications.
hazard recognition
Hazard Recognition
  • Must Know How to Recognize Haz Mat Incidents
importance of recognition
Importance of Recognition
  • Any responder can encounter hazmats
  • Any responder can get hurt

Percent of responder injured at hazmat incidents.

importance of recognition33
Importance of Recognition
  • Recognition leads to safety
  • Safety leads to lives preserved
not always reported as hazmats
Not Always Reported as Hazmats
  • Many reported as:
    • Traffic accident
    • Medical aid
    • Fire, person down, etc.
  • Initial report may not indicate presence of hazardous materials!
hazmat recognition clues
Hazmat Recognition Clues
  • Occupancy/Location
  • Container Shapes
  • Markings & Colors
  • Placards & Labels
hazmat recognition clues36
Hazmat Recognition Clues
  • Shipping Papers and MSDS
  • Senses
  • Other Clues
hazmat locations
Hazmat Locations
  • Haz Mats manufactured, stored, used and transported anywhere
hazmat locations39
Hazmat Locations
  • Be aware of “Common” locations
container shapes
Container Shapes

Gendron Gases

containers and packages
Containers and Packages
  • Shape may be a clue to the contents
    • Container
    • Package
    • Truck
    • Tank
container shapes42
Container Shapes
  • DOT specification vehicle
  • Compressed gas cylinders
  • Common above-ground tanks
dot spec vehicles
DOT Spec Vehicles
  • DOT 406/MC 306

Taimanao Trucking

Taimanao Trucking

dot spec vehicles44
DOT Spec Vehicles
  • DOT 407/MC 307
dot spec vehicles45
DOT Spec Vehicles
  • DOT 412/MC 312
dot spec vehicles47
DOT Spec Vehicles
  • MC 331 – Tube Trailer
potential stresses
Potential Stresses
  • Thermal
  • Mechanical
  • Chemical
  • Radiation
  • Last resort!
  • Highest danger!
other recognition clues
Other Recognition Clues?
  • Responsible Party
  • Witnesses
  • Business plan
clues are clues
“Clues” are “Clues”!
  • They are a,
    • Warning
    • Note of caution
    • Indication of things to come
    • But not always all the answers!
outward warning signs
Outward Warning Signs
  • Evidence of leak, fire, smoke, vapors, unusual colors/odors
  • People running from, or collapsed in the area
outward warning signs56
Outward Warning Signs
  • Sound of an operating relief valve
  • Remember: Assume Haz Mat & look for clues or warning signs until you confirm the absence of hazardous materials!
special markings
Special Markings
  • NFPA 704
  • Biohazards
  • Military markings
  • Pipeline markers
  • Hazcom markings
  • Railcards
placards and labels
Placards and Labels
  • Know hazard classes
    • Colors
    • Symbols
    • Placard/label shapes
components of placards
Components of Placards


Background and Border


ID Number and Division Number


placards and labels60
Placards and Labels
  • Know placard limits
    • Multiple and subsidiary hazards
    • “Dangerous” placard meaning
      • (Table 1 & 2 commodities)
    • Compliance and enforcement
shipping papers
Shipping Papers
  • Preferred Haz Mat Identification Source
  • Know types and locations
locations of shipping papers
Locations of Shipping Papers
  • Truck: Bill of Lading (In cab)
locations of shipping papers63
Locations of Shipping Papers
  • Air: Air Bill (In cockpit)
locations of shipping papers64
Locations of Shipping Papers
  • Rail: Waybill & Consist (With crew)
locations of shipping papers65

Lundgren Shipping

Locations of Shipping Papers
  • Vessel: Dangerous Cargo Manifest (On bridge)
shipping papers66


Shipping Papers
  • Should include info about products
  • But they may not always be accurate or complete
material safety data sheets



Make out your will. It’s all over.Death imminent. No hope for you pal!

Bad stuff!

Touch this and you die.

Call 911 now!

Material Safety Data Sheets
  • Should be available for each Haz Mat in the workplace
    • Required by OSHA Hazard Communication Regs
  • Provides valuable information
first operational thought
First Operational Thought
  • Experienced responders have a positive safety attitude
    • Use recognized safety procedures
    • Develop awareness of possible secondary & tertiary hazards
    • Treat all Haz Mat events with respect & anticipate problems
first operational thought69
First Operational Thought
  • Cross reference 3 or more sources
  • Ensure back-up plans are in place
  • Set up and use decon procedures early
mental safe approach
Mental Safe Approach
  • Maintain a Mental Safe Approach Tactic
    • Always keep your distance
    • Upwind, Upgrade and Upstream!
    • Be a responder, not an indicator
ways hazmats can kill
Ways Hazmats Can Kill
  • Toxicity
  • Radioactivity
  • Asphyxiation
  • Explosion
  • Flammability
  • Corrosion
safety isolation and notifications s i n
Safety, Isolation and Notifications (S.I.N.)

“I have sinned…”

J. Swaggert

definition sin
Definition - SIN
  • S = Safety
  • I = Isolation
  • N = Notifications
responder actions
Responder Actions
  • All responders should SIN
  • Basic initial action
  • Done at all hazmat incidents
first operational thought75
First Operational Thought
  • The first operational thought for all responder levels is safety!
first operational thought76
First Operational Thought
  • First operational thought is safety
    • Safety starts with first responder on-scene
    • All must have positive safety attitude
positive safety attitude
Positive Safety Attitude
  • Three techniques to ensure safety
    • Safe approach
    • Safe assessment
    • Key safety guides for all
safe approach
Safe Approach




safe approach80
Safe Approach
  • Position vehicles away from event…
    • For quick departure!
  • Advise responders of safe route of approach.
conduct safe assessment
Conduct Safe Assessment
  • Conduct safe size-up
  • Or you may have no size-up
conduct safe assessment82
Conduct Safe Assessment
  • Don’t get close enough for positive ID
  • Slow down, shut-off A/C, observe area
  • Position vehicles headed away
  • Use binoculars to identify/assess
desired initial actions
Desired Initial Actions
  • Safe Approach
  • Isolate & deny entry
  • Make initial Notifications
  • Establish temporary command
general safety precautions
General Safety Precautions
  • 10 key Safety Guides/Do’s & Don’ts
    • In the book...
    • Which do need to improve on?
osha requirements
OSHA Requirements
  • IC must designate a Safety Officer
  • Safety Officer ensures safety on-scene
  • Safety Officer enforces and First Responders observe, safety rules
first operational priority
First Operational Priority
  • Isolate & deny entry!
first operational priority87
First Operational Priority
  • FRAs — usually isolate and deny entry by establishing a “Perimeter”
    • Use ERG recommendations
first operational priority88
First Operational Priority
  • Dilemma
    • Safe distance vs. control of Perimeter
perimeters control zones
Perimeters & Control Zones
  • Purpose of Perimeters & Control Zones
    • Ensure safety and isolation
    • Control the scene
    • Limit spread of contamination
    • Allow for safe working area
perimeters control zones90
Perimeters & Control Zones
  • Main operational difference
    • FROs usually set Perimeters
    • Techs/Specialists set Zones
control zones
Control Zones
  • Exclusion/Hot Zone
  • Contamination Reduction/Warm Zone
  • Support/Cold Zone
control zones95
Control Zones

Contamination Reduction Zone

Exclusion Zone

Support Zone

first operational priority96
First Operational Priority
  • Isolate and deny entry
perimeter control objectives
Perimeter Control Objectives
  • Control
    • Entry Points
    • Perimeter
    • Access inside perimeter
perimeter control tactics
Perimeter Control Tactics
  • Determine size/extent of perimeter
    • Per ERG!
    • Downwind perimeter usually longer


perimeter control tactics100
Perimeter Control Tactics
  • Identify all entry points
  • Control all entry points
  • Identify and establish boundaries
establishing boundaries
Establishing Boundaries
  • Unstaffed barricades usually ineffective
  • Be aware of ignition sources
    • Vehicles
    • Flares
  • Use existing barriers
control access to perimeter
Control Access to Perimeter
  • Deny entry to all
  • Stage responders not assigned
  • Establish emergency exit procedures
  • Establish control zones
  • Watch for wind shifts
perimeters and control zones
Perimeters and Control Zones
  • IC is ultimately responsible
types of notifications
Types of Notifications
  • Mandatory notifications
  • Resource requests
  • Report of conditions
rp notification requirements
RP Notification Requirements
  • Responsible party must make “Mandatory” notifications
    • To proper authorities
    • Releases with potential adverse impact
      • Health
      • Safety
      • Environment
notification requirements
Notification Requirements
  • Responder — make same notifications as back-up
  • RP must make “mandatory” notifications
    • Possible civil/criminal penalties for non–notification!
notification requirements108
Notification Requirements
  • “Mandatory” notifications
    • Local 911 — Local dispatch
    • CUPA/Administering Agency — ???
    • State Warning Center — (800) 852-7550
    • National Response Center — (800) 424-8802
other notifications required
Other Notifications Required
  • Pesticides – County Agriculture
  • Spill in state waters – OES
  • Highways – CHP
  • Radiologicals – DHS
  • Wildlife – DF&G
  • Prop 65 substances – County
notifications for schools
Notifications for Schools
  • Notify District Superintendent
    • Acutely hazardous material release
    • Within ½ mile of a school
responsibility for notifications
Responsibility for Notifications
  • RP makes mandatory notifications
  • Responders:
    • Releases near schools
    • Prop 65 notification
information needed
Information Needed


  • Location
  • Name of person reporting
  • Substance released




information needed113
Information Needed
  • Nature of problem
  • Quantity released
  • Other potential hazards
    • (e.g. fire!)
key notification points
Key Notification Points
  • For Federal Agencies
    • National Response Center
    • (800) 424-8802




key notification points115
Key Notification Points
  • For State Agencies
    • State Warning Center
    • (800) 852-7550




notification issues
Notification Issues
  • May need notification checklist
rules of thumb
Rules of Thumb
  • Know local resources & request early
  • Request all response agencies
  • Know Mutual Aid for area Haz Mat teams, local industry, state & federal resources
  • Stage incoming resources
accessing resources
Accessing Resources
  • Pre-awareness and contact lists
  • Develop 24 hour contact points & notification/contact lists, and
  • Put them in a “User-friendly” format
report of conditions
Report of Conditions
  • What you see
  • What you need
  • What you are doing
    • (or have done)
dot emergency response guidebook erg
DOT Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG)
  • ERG purpose:
    • Basic safety tool
    • Basic identification
    • Initial actions
msds as an idha tool
MSDS as an IDHA Tool
  • Answers key questions
    • What is it?
    • How can I protect my self?
    • What will it do to me?
      • MSDS often provide toxicological info.
    • Chemical Transportation Emergency Center
  • 24 Hour technical information center
  • One person call (800) 424-9300
other reference guides
Other Reference Guides
  • Condensed Chemical Dictionary
  • CHRIS Manual
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide
  • Sax Book
other reference guides125
Other Reference Guides
  • Farm Chemical Handbook
  • AAR book
  • NFPA guide
other reference guides126
Other Reference Guides
  • Merck Index
  • Computer databases
  • Pesticide labels
variables modifying conditions
Variables & Modifying Conditions
  • Location
    • (open field vs. downtown)
variables modifying conditions128
Variables & Modifying Conditions
  • Time
    • (evening or day or hours next to a school)
variables modifying conditions129
Variables & Modifying Conditions
  • Weather
    • (wind, temperature, rain)
variables modifying conditions130
Variables & Modifying Conditions
  • Size of problem
    • (5 gallon vs. 500 gallon)
variables modifying conditions131
Variables & Modifying Conditions
  • Stage of incident
    • (short vs. long duration release)
variables modifying conditions132
Variables & Modifying Conditions
  • Nature of materials
    • Semi Bad Stuff or
    • Bad Stuff or
    • Really Bad Stuff
variables modifying conditions133
Variables & Modifying Conditions
  • Type, condition & behavior of container
variables modifying conditions134
Variables & Modifying Conditions
  • Responders & equipment
variables modifying conditions135
Variables & Modifying Conditions
  • Availability & amount of control agents
predicted behavior
Predicted Behavior
  • Before intervention
  • Try to predict behavior of release
    • What will it do?
    • Where will it go?
    • What will it hurt?
baseline question
Baseline Question
  • Before intervention
    • Outcome of natural stabilization?
    • Favorable impact intervention will make?
complications in hazard assessment
Complications in Hazard Assessment
  • Mixed load placard — “Dangerous”
  • 4-4-4 NFPA 704 marking
complications in hazard assessment139
Complications in Hazard Assessment
  • Multiple Haz Mats or “Mixed Bag” problem
    • May need chemist or Haz Mat team to aid in IDHA and action planning
intelligence vs information
Intelligence vs. Information
  • “Intelligence” — information that is:
    • Verified
    • Organized
    • Analyzed
    • Prioritized and
    • Useful for valid IDHA
fra role
FRA Role
  • Won’t develop written plans (usually)
  • Should have response objectives
  • Should plan before acting