The Second World War Chapter 22
Global Tension Dictators Defy the League of Nations
Japan expands in Asia. Meiji Period – modernization & westernization Spread of militarism after WWI Wanted to dominate the Asian “Sphere of Influence” Imperialist expansion Hideki Tojo – military-style dictator
Weaknesses in China 1911 overthrow of the Manchu Dynasty Chinese republic – Sun Yat-sen, organizer of the Kuomintang or Nationalist Party. Chiang Kai-shek leads after Sun Yat-sen dies. Civil war breaks out when communists under Mao Zedong challenge the Nationalist Republic.
Chaing Kai-shek Mao Zedong
Weaknesses in China The two sides suspend their civil war when Japan takes advantage of the strife to invade China in 1937. They join together to fight Japan, but Japan is prepared and strong. U.S. sends aid through the “Flying Tigers.” League of Nations condemns the invasion but has no enforcement authority.
Flying Tigers News Reels The Flying Tigers
Italian Revenge in Africa Italy is forever trying to return to the glory of the Roman Empire. Expand by invading Ethiopia which had defeated Italy in the 19th century. Italy had advanced weapons; Ethiopia didn’t. League of Nations imposed economic sanctions, but to no real effect.
German Rearmament in Europe Hitler has established the Third Reich. Sought lebensraum – “living space” for the Aryan nation. Rebuild German military; establish draft Seize & fortify the Rhineland. France was upset but did nothing to intervene.
Global Tension Hitler Challenges European Security
AXIS POWERS • Rome-Berlin Axis 1936 • Line not a partition but an axis around which all European states can revolve. • Anti-Comintern Pact (Germany & Japan) • Axis Powers • GERMANY • ITALY • JAPAN
Spanish Civil War • Fascist Francisco Franco revolted against Spain’s republican government. (1936) • Supported by Germany & Italy • Tried out new weapons and tactics. Guernica, Picasso’s depiction of the Spanish Civil War
Hitler takes Austria - Anschluss • Anschluss is forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. • 1938 Hitler demands a Nazi chancellor for Austria & gets one. • New chancellor “requests” Hitler to send German troops to “reestablish order.”
Appeasement - Czechoslovakia • Sudetenland with many German speakers, some of whom had fled Nazi aggression. • Hitler demanded it. • Neville Chamberlain, PM of Britain tries to resolve.
Appeasement - Czechoslovakia • Hitler promises not to make further territorial claims. • Munich Conference, September 1938 • Chamberlain and the French PM Daladier give the Sudetenland to Hitler. • Note: Czechoslovakia had no representation at the conference. Chamberlain & Hitler @ Munich 1938
Chamberlain justified appeasement, claiming victory because they had avoided war. • Winston Churchill said it was a total defeat and would lead to European subjugation by the Nazis. Winston Churchill
On to Poland • A week after Munich, Hitler demanded the “Polish Corridor.” • British and French resist and agree to defend Poland. They also get Russia to agree. • Hitler expected them to give in since they had before.
Global Conflict Axis Successes
September 1, 1939 WWII begins with the German invasion of Poland. Britain & France declare war on Germany. Hitler took Poland in less than 4 weeks. How?
Conquest of Poland • Panzers – tank divisions • Wehrmacht – German Army • Blitzkrieg – lightning warfare, fast and decisive strikes • Luftwaffe – German air force
The Phony War After the takeover of Poland, a lull or “sitzkrieg” (sitting war) occurred in which neither side launched an offensive. April 1940 Germany attacked Denmark and Norway to prevent England and France from using them as bases. The “Fifth Column” or traitors helped the Nazis take Denmark & Norway.
Fall of France Maginot Line Germans simply trek through the Ardennes Forest using blitzkrieg. (map page 577) Allies are pushed back to Dunkirk. Miracle at Dunkirk (page 578)
France • Many French flee to Britain in the Dunkirk evacuation. • French government under Field Marshal Henri Petain surrenders on June 22, 1940. • Most of France is occupied by Nazis • Southern France is governed by Petain for the Germans at Vichy. (Vichy France)
North Africa • Mussolini invades Egypt and is repelled. • Hitler sends in help: Field Marshall Erwin Rommel, the Desert Fox. • Lacks supplies but almost conquers Alexandria, Egypt. Erwin Rommel
Battle of Britain Day bombing Night bombing Total warfare – targeting civilians in cities Narnia clip http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SQ0fGS01Pdg
Battle of Britain http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LsKDGM5KTBY Our Finest Hour – Churchill http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MkTw3_PmKtc&feature=related Fight them on the Beaches… - Churchill
U.S. “Neutrality” • Gave Britain 50 WWI destroyers • Lend-Lease Act 1941 • Atlantic Charter (see text page 581)
Axis Blunders Germany could not manage to defeat the British navy or gain control of the French navy, whose ships had been scuttled or captured by the British so they Germans couldn’t get them. An invasion of a well-defended island would be difficult without a strong navy. Ultimately, Hitler chose not to invade Britain after he had bombed it because he turned his attention to Russia.
Axis Blunders Invasion of Russia
Germany & Russia German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact 1939. Germany invaded one part of Poland and Russia invaded the other.
Operation Barbarossa • Germans betrayed the Russians. • Spring 1941 invasion. • Reasons: • Lebensraum • Oil
Operation Barbarossa Nazis underestimated the Russians. Russian industry Length of time it would take Russian winter German army unprepared
Operation Barbarossa Russians retreat before the Germans. Scorched earth tactics Russian casualties: 4-5 million by December Germans almost reached Moscow. Winter arrived first. -40 degrees fahrenheit
Operation Barbarossa Stalingrad – Russians are heavily assaulted but refuse to surrender. Russians defeat the Germans after months of fierce fighting. Russians began receiving supplies from the other Allies through Iran, which helped them greatly.
Pearl Harbor United States held the Philippines, Guam, Hawaii, and some other small Pacific islands. Japanese could not dominate Asia with the U.S. presence in the Pacific. Plan to cripple the U.S. fleet so Japan could gain dominance.
Pearl Harbor Japanese were angry at U.S. interference with their plans in China. They were also offended by the embargo the U.S. had placed on Japan preventing the country from getting badly needed oil. (Typically viewed as an act of war)
Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 surprise attack. Battleships damaged and destroyed. Airfields wrecked. Aircraft carriers are out to sea instead of in port.
Pearl Harbor Caused the American people to support U.S. entry into WWII. President Roosevelt makes his “date which will live in infamy” speech. Congress officially declares war on Japan. Germany & Italy declare war on U.S. Japan had “awakened a sleeping giant.”
Allied Advances North Africa to Italy
Monty (British General Bernard Montgomery) defeated the Nazis in North Africa in 1942. • U.S. sent forces to Algeria to defeat the Nazis under the command of General Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Invasion of Italy First invaded the island of Sicily under Eisenhower. Mussolini resigned. Allies land on mainland Europe in the Italian peninsula in Sept. 1943. Italy surrenders, but German troops keep fighting in Italy.
Mussolini was captured then rescued by the Nazis. Then Italian partisans who opposed the Nazis recaptured Mussolini and executed him.