Organic Chemistry Simple Organic Families Organic Nomenclature
Organic Molecules • Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. • Carbon has the ability to form long chains. • Without this property, large biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids could not form. • Carbon is the only element capable of forming stable chains of atoms bonded through single-double-triple bonds.
Structure of Carbon Compounds • There are three hybridization states and geometries found in organic compounds: • sp3tetrahedral • sp2trigonal planar • splinear
HYDROCARBON FAMILIES • Divided into four groups based on the kinds of carbon-carbon bonds present #1. Alkanes #2. Alkenes #3. Alkynes #4. Aromatics
Alkanes • Alkanes contain only single bonds. • They are also known as saturated hydrocarbons. • They are “saturated” with hydrogens, only contain single bonds.
Writing Formulas for Alkanes • Lewis structures of alkanes to the left below. • They are also called structural formulas. • They are often not convenientto attempt to write so condensed formulas are typically used.
Properties of Alkanes • The only force is the London dispersion force. • The boiling point increases with the length of the chain.
Structure of Alkanes • Carbons in alkanes are sp3 hybrids. • They have a tetrahedral geometry and 109.5 bond angles.
Structure of Alkanes • There are only -bonds present in alkanes. • There is free rotation about the C—C bonds.
What is an Isomer? P. 1009 STRAIGHT Isomers have the same molecular formulas, but the atoms are bonded in a different order. ISOMERS STRAIGHT ISOMERS
Common Naming Schemes -n • Common Names listed in 1st column. • “ n “ indicates an isomer of the normal structure • When a CH3 group branches, the isomer prefix –iso • When another CH3 group branches, the isomer prefix-neo -iso -n -iso -neo AFTER THIS – CRAZY TOWN!
Organic Nomenclature • There are three parts to a compound name: • Base: This tells how many carbons are in the longest continuous chain. • Suffix: This tells what type of compound it is. • Prefix: This tells what groups are attached to the chain.
Naming Simple Alkanes Watch this link to learn to name simple alkanes!
How to Name a Compound If there is more than one type of substituent in the molecule, list them alphabetically. GOT IT??? YEAH RIGHT! WATCH THIS!
Cycloalkanes • Carbon can also form ringed structures. • Five- and six-membered rings are most stable. • They can take on conformations in which their bond angles are very close to the tetrahedral angle. • Smaller rings are quite strained.
Reactions of Alkanes • Alkanes are rather unreactive due to the presence of only C—C and C—H -bonds. • Therefore, they make great nonpolar solvents. • Make great Combustion fuel!