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Leadership . What Is Leadership?. Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Some Characteristics of Managers Versus Leaders in the Twenty-First Century. Sumber : Luthans (1995 : hal. 342). Empirical Results … (Castile, 2006).

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What is leadership
What Is Leadership?

Leadership

The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals.


Leadership

Some Characteristics of Managers Versus Leaders in the Twenty-First Century

Sumber : Luthans (1995 : hal. 342)


Empirical results castile 2006
Empirical Results Twenty-First Century…(Castile, 2006)

  • Regression analysis showed a strong positivecorrelationbetween leadership and organisational performance (<0.05)

  • But … although independent variables where found to be jointly significant they are individually insignificant (hence not independent) - (multicollinearity)

  • Factor analysis generated a 2 Factor model

  • F1 Generates and manages a vision

  • F2 Empowers others


Teori kepemimpinan robbins 2002
Teori Twenty-First CenturyKepemimpinan(Robbins, 2002)

Teori Sifat

(Traits Theory)

Teori Keprilakuan

(Behavioral Theory)

Teori Kepemimpinan

Teori Kemungkinan

(Contigency Theory)


Leadership theories

Results Twenty-First Century

Focus

Capability Focus

Leadership Theories...

Emerging

Models

Trait Theory

Style Theory

Situational Theory

Transformational Theory

  • Made

  • Behaviours

  • Made

  • Context

  • Situational

  • Flexibility

  • Born

  • Heroic

  • Characteristics

  • Born and Made

  • Situational

  • Born and Made

  • Primal Leadership

  • Servant Leadership


Trait theories
Trait Theories Twenty-First Century

Traits Theories of Leadership

Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders.

  • Leadership Traits:

  • Ambition and energy

  • The desire to lead

  • Honest and integrity

  • Self-confidence

  • Intelligence

  • High self-monitoring

  • Job-relevant knowledge


Sifat pemimpin yang dikagumi kouzes posner
Sifat Pemimpin Yang Dikagumi Twenty-First Century(Kouzes & Posner)


Behavioral theories
Behavioral Theories Twenty-First Century

Behavioral Theories of Leadership

Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders.

  • Trait theory:Leaders are born, not made.

  • Behavioral theory:Leadership traits can be taught.


The managerial grid blake and mouton
The Managerial Grid Twenty-First Century(Blake and Mouton)


Contigency theory situational leadership
Contigency Theory Twenty-First Century(Situational Leadership)


Transformational vs transactional leadership
Transformational Vs Transactional Leadership Twenty-First Century

Transactional Leadership

  • Leaders who engage in “transactions” with employees, such as using rewards to encourage good performance and punishment for inadequate performance.

  • Transactional leaders rely heavily on power from their organizational position and status.

  • Research shows that most men describe themselves this way.


Transformational leadership
Transformational leadership Twenty-First Century

  • “Transformational” leaders are focused on “transforming” their employees’ priorities to reflect the interest of the group. This involves the use of collaboration and open communication.

  • Transformational leaders influence people and events.

  • Most women identify themselves this way.


Variables of transformational leadership
Variables of Transformational Leadership Twenty-First Century

  • Transformational Leadership

  • Idealized Influence

  • Inspiration

  • Intellectual stimulation

  • Individualized consideration

Broadening and

elevating follower goals

Performance beyond expectations

  • Transactional Leadership

  • Contingent reward

  • Management by exception (active or passive)

  • Laissez faire

Leader/follower exchange

Agreed uponperformance


Human resources management in healthcare

Human Resources Management Twenty-First Centuryin HealthCare

Oleh :

Arief Alamsyah


Leadership

Masuk Twenty-First CenturyRumahSakit

Moment of Truth (MOT)

Pasien

Petugas

Pendaftaran

Tukangparkir

Satpam

Kasier

Dokter

Perawat

Petugas

Apotik

Lab.

Petugas Rontgent


Leadership

National Health System Components Twenty-First Century


Leadership

RS Twenty-First CenturyterkesanDoctor OrientedPadahal SDM RS sangatKompleks :- Perawat- AhliGizi- Ekonom- Analis- Fisioterapis- Radiografer- Satpam- TukangCuci (Laundry)


Peraturan pemerintah pp no 32 tahun 1996
Peraturan Twenty-First CenturyPemerintah (PP)No.32 Tahun 1996

Tenaga Kesehatan terdiri atas :

  • Tenaga Medis

  • Tenaga Keperawatan

  • Tenaga Kefarmasian

  • Tenaga Kesehatan Masyarakat

  • Tenaga Gizi

  • Tenaga Keterapian Fisik, ex : physiotherapist, speech therapist

  • Tenaga Keteknisian Medis, ex : radiografer


Leadership

The lack of unity for health Twenty-First Century

Source: Dr. Charles.Boelen,

Towards Unity for Health, WHO Geneva, 2000

Policy Makers

Mrs TalkWell

Dr ButCare

Health

Managers

Health Professions

Mr AllDone

Prof KnowAll

Academic

Institutions

Communities

WantAll



Definisi msdm
Definisi Twenty-First Century MSDM

Serangkaiankeputusanuntukmengelolahubunganketenagakerjaan (calonpegawai, pegawai & pensiunan) secara optimal mulaidarirekruitmen, seleksi, penempatan, pemeliharaan (kompensasi &kesejahteraan) danpengembangan, (karir, pendidikan & pelatihan ) sertaterminasi, untukmencapaitujuanorganisasi (memeliharadanmeningkatkanperformansi)


Aktivitas manajemen sdm
Aktivitas Twenty-First CenturyManajemen SDM

  • Perencanaan SDM

  • RekruitmendanSeleksi

  • PenilaianKinerja

  • PelatihandanPengembangan

  • PemberianKompensasi

  • PemeliharaanKaryawan

  • HubunganKaryawan


Aktivitas msdm

Penilaian Twenty-First CenturyKinerja

Pelatihan & pengembangan

Kompensasi

Rekrutmen

Seleksi

Perencanaan

Hubungan

Karyawan

Pemeliharaan

(karir)

Kompetensi Yang Dibutuhkan

Aktivitas MSDM


Recuitment
Recuitment Twenty-First Century

is the act or process of an organization attempting to obtain additional manpower for operational purpose

Recutiment including the identification and evaluation of source, is major step in the total staffing process. It continues with inventories of capabilities, recuitment, selection, placement and orientation


Tingkat absensi ta
Tingkat Absensi (TA) Twenty-First Century

Hari Kerja yang Hilang

TA

=

Hari Karyawan Bekerja + Hari Karyawan Tidak berkerja

Seorangahligizifull timer total harikerjasebulan rata-rata 25 hari, bekerja13 hari, jumlahharitidakbekerja 12 hari

TA = 12/ 25 X 100% = 50%


Turn over
Turn Over Twenty-First Century

  • Accession Rate (AR), karenakeluar

  • Separation Rate (SR), karenapemecatan

    Andaikatasuatu RS memiliki 800 karyawan, dimanaselamaituterjadi 16 kali karyawankeluardan 24 kali pemecatanmaka

    AR 16/800 X 100% = 2 %

    SR 24/800 X 100% = 3%

    Replacement rate minimal samadengan

    AR


Selecting
Selecting Twenty-First Century

is chossing. The selection process involves picking out by preference some objects from among others.


Success profile
Success Profile Twenty-First Century

  • What I Know (Knowledge)

  • What I can Do (Competency)

  • What I have Done (Experience)

  • Personal Traits (Personality)


Selection process
Selection Process Twenty-First Century

  • Successive Hurdles

    Harus lulus secara bertahap

  • Compensatory

    Kekurangan di salah satu faktor dapat ditutup oleh faktor lain


Successive hurdles
Successive Hurdles Twenty-First Century

STOP

STOP

STOP

STOP

STOP

Seleksi

Berkas

Tes

Wawancara

Personality

Check

Cek

Kesehatan

Diterima


Compensatory
Compensatory Twenty-First Century

STOP

Tes

Berkas

Personality

Diterima

Cek Kesehatan


Orientasi
Orientasi Twenty-First Century

Disebut juga proses induksi. Memperkenalkan para karyawan baru terhadap peranan atau kedudukan mereka di organisasi dan dengan para karyawan lain


Manfaat program orientasi
Manfaat Program Orientasi Twenty-First Century

  • Tenaga kerja baru (new comers) menjadi faham terhadap organisasi di mana mereka bekerja

  • Mengurangi rasa kekhawatiran bagi tenaga kerja baru akan masa depanya

  • Penyelia, atasan langsung,rekan sekerja akan lebih yakin, bahwa tenaga kerja baru akan bekerja dengan baik dan benar

  • Mengurangi akan turn over


Orientasi1
Orientasi Twenty-First Century

Masalah Organisasional

Sejarah Singkat Organisasi

Struktur, visi, misi,values, ritual

Nama dan jabatan direktur

Lay out Rumah Sakit

Periode Percobaan

Policy, aturan, sangsi

Buku Pedoman Karyawan

Proses Pelayanan

Hal lain penting masalah pelayanan

Perkenalan

Dengan Supervisor

Dengan instruktur (CI)

Dengan rekan sekerja

Dengan bagian HRD

Ke HRD-an (Tunjangan-tunjangan Karyawan)

Skala Penggajian

Cuti dan Liburan

Jam Istirahat

Latihan dan Pendidikan

Konseling

Asuransi

Program Pensiun

Pelayanan organisasi terhadap

Karyawan

Lain-2 misal Kopkar

Tugas-tugas Jabatan (Khusus)

Lokasi Pekerjaan

Tugas-tugas Pekerjaan

Alur Orientasi

Fungsi jabatan

SOP-SOP

Hubunganya dengan pekerjaan lain


Contoh alur orientasi perawat baru
Contoh Twenty-First CenturyAlurOrientasiperawatbaru

UGD

1 minggu

Poli

1 minggu

Tes

Dengan CI

Specific care

3 hari

Ruangan

Kelas 3

1 minggu

Ruangan

Kelas 1 dan 2

2 minggu

Penempatan


Leadership

  • Pelatihan Twenty-First CenturydanPengembangan

Definisi Pelatihan

Pelatihan adalah serangkaian aktivitas yang dirancang untuk meningkatkan keahlian-keahlian, pengetahuan, pengalaman, ataupun perubahan sikap seorang individu. Pelatihan berkenaan dengan perolehan keahlian-keahlian atau pengetahuan tertentu.


Two sides of skills
Two-Sides of Skills Twenty-First Century

Hard Skills

Soft Skills


Leadership

Program Satuan Pelatihan (PSP) Twenty-First Century

PENGERTIAN :

  • Bentuksuatuperencanaansistematis program pelatihan yang mencakup:

  • Tujuanpelatihan yang akandicapai

  • Lingkupmateripelatihan

  • Strategipelaksanaanpelatihan

  • Sumber / referensi


Leadership

Komponen Twenty-First Century PSP

1. Topik / pokokbahasan

2. Prasyaratkemampuanpeserta

3. Tujuanpelatihan

4. Materipelatihan

5. Kegiatanbelajarmengajar

6. Alat, media, danbahanpelatihan

7. Evaluasi


Leadership

Format PSP Twenty-First Century


Leadership

Motivating Twenty-First Centurypeople …


Relationship of various needs theories
Relationship of Various Needs Theories Twenty-First Century

Alderfer

Herzberg

Maslow

McClelland

Self-Actualization

Need for Achievement

Growth

Motivators

Esteem

Need for Power

Relatedness

Affiliation

Hygiene

Need for Affiliation

Factors

Security

Existence

Physiological


Motivation
Motivation Twenty-First Century

Motivation as…

Energizing condition of organism that serves to direct that organism toward the goal of certain class

Motivation is….

An inner impulse that determines what people do and the energy and enthusiasm with which they do it

(WHO,1992, On Being in Charge)


The motivational process gibson ivancevich donnelly 1994
The Twenty-First CenturyMotivational Process(Gibson, Ivancevich, Donnelly, 1994)

Need Deficiences

Search for ways to

Satisfy needs

Need deficinecies reassessed

By the employee

The

Employee

Reward or Punishments

Goal directed Behaviour

Performance

(Evaluation of goal

Accomplished)


A hierarchy of work motivation 5 stages original version maslow
A Hierarchy of Work Motivation Twenty-First Century(5 stages Original Version, Maslow)

Self Actualization

Needs

Personal growth

Realization of potential

Esteem Needs

Status Symbols,reputation

Belongingness & Love Needs

Relationship, work grooup

Safety Needs

Protection, security, law

Biological & Physiological Needs

Food, shelter,sex, sleep


Alderfer s erg theory luthans 9 th 2002
Alderfer’s ERG Theory Twenty-First Century(Luthans 9th, 2002)

  • Existence needs : Kebutuhan yang berhubungandenganeksistensipegawai (Makan, minum, pakaian, gaji, keamanankerja)

  • Relatedness needs : Kebutuhan interpersonal yaitukepuasanberinteraksi

  • Growth needs : Kebutuhanuntukmengembangkandiri


Mcclelland s learned needs theory gibson ivancevich donnelly 1994
McClelland’s Learned needs Theory Twenty-First Century(Gibson, Ivancevich, Donnelly, 1994)

  • Need for achievement : Kebutuhanuntukberprestasi yang merupakanrefleksidaridoronganakantanggungjawabuntukmemecahkanmasalah

  • Need for affiliation : Kebutuhanuntukberafiliasi yang merupakandoronganuntukberinteraksidenganorang lain

  • Need for Power : Kebutuhanuntukkekuasaan yang merupakanrefleksidaridoronganuntukmencapaiotoritasdanmempengaruhiorang lain


Herzberg s two factor theory of motivation luthans 9 th 2002
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation Twenty-First Century(Luthans 9th, 2002)


Leadership

KOMPENSASI Twenty-First Century

Finansial

Non Finansial

  • Langsung

  • GajiPokok

  • Upah

  • Gaji

    PenghasilanTidakTetap

  • Bonus

  • Insentif

  • Opsisaham

TakLangsung

Program proteksi

Pensiun

Fasilitas

Bayarandiluar jam kerja

Pekerjaan

Tugas yang menarik

Tantangan

Tanggung jawab

Pengakuan

Pencapaian

Lingkungan

Kebijakan yang sehat

Rekan kerja yang mendukung

Supervisi yang kompeten

lingkungan yang nyaman


Leadership

Thank You For Your Twenty-First Century

Kind Attention