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Traumatic Brain Injury. By: Shauna Rowland. What is TBI?.
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Traumatic Brain Injury By: Shauna Rowland
What is TBI? • According to the IDEA, Traumatic brain injury means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Traumatic brain injury applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. Traumatic brain injury does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma. (4)
Facts about Traumatic Brain Injury • Traumatic Brain Injury is usually referred to as TBI (1) • Defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the function of the brain. (1) • The two age groups at highest risk for TBI are 0 to 4 year olds and 15 to 19 year olds (2) • Have many people have TBI? (1) • United States: • 52,000 die; • 275,000 are hospitalized; and • 1.365 million are treated and released from an emergency department.
What are some Effects… In Children… Tiredness or listlessness Irritability or crankiness (will not stop crying or cannot be consoled) Changes in eating (will not eat or nurse) Changes in sleep patterns Changes in the way the child plays Changes in performance at school Lack of interest in favorite toys or activities Loss of new skills, such as toilet training Loss of balance or unsteady walking Vomiting (7) • Headaches or neck pain that do not go away • Difficulty remembering, concentrating, or making decisions • Slowness in thinking, speaking, acting, or reading • Getting lost or easily confused • Feeling tired all of the time, having no energy or motivation • Mood changes (feeling sad or angry for no reason) • Changes in sleep patterns (sleeping a lot more or having a hard time sleeping) • Light-headedness, dizziness, or loss of balance • Urge to vomit (nausea) • Increased sensitivity to lights, sounds, or distractions • Blurred vision or eyes that tire easily • Loss of sense of smell or taste • Ringing in the ears
Leading Causes • Falls (35.2%) • Motor vehicle-traffic crashes (17.3%) • Struck by/against events (16.5%) • Assaults (10%) • Unknown/Other (21%) (2)
Different Types • A Mild brain injury is categorized by a loss of consciousness for 0-30 minutes, alteration of consciousness for a moment up to 24 hours, post traumatic amnesia that can last 0-1 day. • A Moderate brain injury is categorized by normal or abnormal structural imaging, a loss of consciousness for more than 30 minutes and less than 24 hours, alteration of consciousness for more than 24 hours, with post traumatic amnesia that can last more than 1 day, and less than 7 days. • A Sever brain injury is categorized by normal or abnormal structural imaging, a loss of consciousness for more than 24 hours, alteration of consciousness for more than 24 hours, with post traumatic amnesia that can last more than 7 days.(5)
How can we help or treat it? • The treatment performed at our clinics is a breakthrough medical procedure were Stem Cells (cellular building blocks) are usually administered intravenously and subcutaneously (under the skin) in Brain Damage patients. The whole procedure takes approximately one hour and has no known negative side effects. (8) • Treatment for more serious TBI may include: • Acute rehabilitation • Transitional living programs • Long term care • Behavior management programs • Day treatment programs
How to help School and Teachers • All schools should test any child with a TBI to find out the change in a child’s educational needs, children with TBI are often misapropriatly placed in special needs classrooms • Special education services are offered at many schools, and if the TBI is severe enough, the child may require attention from these programs • Be familiar with TBI, and the specific type of brain injury of the child (know the details) • Let the child rest if needed • Keep consistent routines, show them how to use a schedule (9)
Advice to Parents • Make sure you are well informed about TBI • Understand your child’s injury and treatment options/plan • Keep track of your child’s treatment and progress • Talk to other parents (find a support group) • Make a return date for school, have the school test your child • Continue to keep in touch/work with your child’s school (9)
Resources National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities- http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/tbi National recourse Center for Traumatic Brain Injury http://www.tbinrc.com/ IDEA Website http://idea.ed.gov/explore/home Brain Injury Association of America http://www.biausa.org/living-with-brain-injury.htm Family Caregiver Alliance http://www.caregiver.org/caregiver/jsp/content_node.jsp?nodeid=579 Center on Brian Injury Research and Training http://www.cbirt.org/tbi-education/
References: • http://www.brainline.org/content/2008/07/facts-about-traumatic-brain-injury.html (1) • http://www.brainline.org/ (2) • http://www.traumaticbraininjury.com/ (3) • http://idea.ed.gov/explore/view/p/,root,regs,300,A,300%252E8,c,12, (4) • http://www.traumaticbraininjury.net/leading-causes-of-brain-injury/ (6) • http://www.health.ny.gov/prevention/injury_prevention/children/fact_sheets/birth-19_years/traumatic_brain_injury_prevention_birth-19_years.htm (7) • http://stemcellofamerica.com/lp/brain-damage-treatment/ (8) • http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/tbi (9)