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Chapter 6. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT Phases, Tools, and Techniques. Opening Case: Cameras Use Film?. Opening Case: Cameras Use Film?. Kodak 35mm film sales dropped from $7 billion in 2004 to an estimated $1.9 billion in 2010 Many retailers no longer process 35mm film

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Chapter 6

Chapter 6


Phases, Tools, and Techniques

Opening case cameras use film
Opening Case:Cameras Use Film?

Opening case cameras use film1
Opening Case:Cameras Use Film?

  • Kodak 35mm film sales dropped from $7 billion in 2004 to an estimated $1.9 billion in 2010

  • Many retailers no longer process 35mm film

  • Web sites like SnapFish, Photo Bucket, and Flickr are now the norm


  • Information systems are the support structure for meeting the company’s strategies and goals

  • New systems are created --

    • because employees request it

    • to obtain a competitive advantage

  • Billions of dollars spent yearly on acquisition, design, development, implementation, and maintenance of IT systems

  • Companies depend on information more than ever

The systems development life cycle

  • Systems development life cycle (SDLC)

  • Defining Success

    • On time

    • On budget

    • Meets requirements

  • Deliverable

  • Milestone

Phase 1 planning
Phase 1: Planning

Planning phase

create a solid plan for developing your information system

Three primary planning activities:

Define the system to be developed

You can’t build every system, so you make choices based on your organization’s priorities, which may be expressed as critical success factors

Critical success factor (CSF) - a factor critical to your organization’s success

Phase 1 planning1
Phase 1: Planning

Set the project scope

Project scope - clearly defines the high-level system requirements

Scope creep - occurs when the scope of the project increases

Feature creep - occurs when developers add extra features that were not part of the initial requirements

Project scope document–written document of the project scope

Phase 1 planning2
Phase 1: Planning

Develop the project plan including tasks, resources, and timeframes

Project plan

Project manager

Project milestones

Phase 1 planning3
Phase 1: Planning

Sample Project Plan

Phase 2 analysis
Phase 2: Analysis

Analysis phase

involves end users and IT specialists working together to gather, understand, and document the business requirements for the proposed system

Two primary analysis activities:

Gather the business requirements

Business requirements - the detailed set of knowledge worker requests that the system must meet in order to be successful

Joint application development (JAD) - knowledge workers and IT specialists meet, sometimes for several days, to define or review the business requirements for the system

Phase 2 analysis1
Phase 2: Analysis

Prioritize the requirements

Requirements definition document -prioritizes the business requirements and places them in a formal comprehensive document

Users sign off on this document which clearly sets the scope for the project

Phase 2 analysis2
Phase 2: Analysis

Take time during analysis to get the business requirements correct. If you find errors, fix them immediately. The cost to fix an error in the early stages of the SDLC is relatively small. In later stages, the cost is huge.

Phase 3 design
Phase 3: Design

Design phase

build a technical blueprint of how the proposed system will work

Two primary design activities:

Design the technical architecture

the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment required to run the system

Design system models

GUI screens that users will interface with, database designs (see XLM/C), report formats, software steps, etc

Phase 3 design1
Phase 3: Design

Starting with design, you take on less of an active participation role and act more as a “quality control” function, ensuring that the IT people are designing a system to meet your needs

Phase 4 development
Phase 4: Development

Development phase

take all of your detailed design documents from the design phase and transform them into an actual system

Two primary development activities:

Build the technical architecture

Build the database and programs

Both of these activities are mostly performed by IT specialists

Phase 5 testing
Phase 5: Testing

Testing phase

verifies that the system works and meets all of the business requirements defined in the analysis phase

Two primary testing activities:

Write the test conditions

Test conditions - the detailed steps the system must perform along with the expected results of each step

Perform the testing of the system

Unit testing – tests individual units of code

System testing – verifies that the units of code function correctly when integrated

Integration testing – verifies that separate systems work together

User acceptance testing (UAT) – determines if the system satisfies the business requirements

Phase 6 implementation
Phase 6: Implementation

Implementation phase

distribute the system to all of the knowledge workers and they begin using the system to perform their everyday jobs

Two primary implementation activities

Write detailed user documentation

User documentation - highlights how to use the system

Provide training for the system users

Online training - runs over the Internet or off a CD-ROM

Workshop training - is held in a classroom environment and lead by an instructor

Phase 6 implementation1
Phase 6: Implementation

Choose the right implementation method

Parallel implementation

Plunge implementation

Pilot implementation

Phased implementation

Phase 7 maintenance
Phase 7: Maintenance

Maintenance phase

monitor and support the new system to ensure it continues to meet the business goals

Two primary maintenance activities:

Build a help desk to support the system users

Help desk - a group of people who responds to knowledge workers’ questions

Provide an environment to support system changes

Sourcing the project
Sourcing the Project

  • Three choices for building a system include:

    • Insourcing

    • Selfsourcing

    • Outsourcing


  • Selfsourcing (also called knowledge worker development or end user development)


  • Advantages

    • Improves requirements determination

    • Increases knowledge worker participation and sense of ownership

    • Increases speed of systems development

  • Potential pitfalls and risks

    • Inadequate knowledge worker expertise leads to inadequately developed systems

    • Lack of organizational focus creates “privatized” IT systems

    • Insufficient analysis of design alternatives leads to subpar IT systems

    • Lack of documentation and external support leads to short-lived systems


  • Developing strategic partnerships

  • Outsourcing

Developing strategic partnerships
Developing Strategic Partnerships

  • IT outsourcing takes on 1 of 4 forms:

    • Purchasing existing software

    • Purchasing existing software and pay the publisher to make certain modifications

    • Purchasing existing software and pay the publisher for the right to make modifications yourself

    • Outsourcing the development of an entirely new and unique system for which no software exists

Outsourcing options
Outsourcing Options

  • There are three different forms of outsourcing:

    • Onshore outsourcing -the process of engaging another company within the same country for services

    • Nearshore outsourcing - contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company in a nearby country

    • Offshore outsourcing - contracting with a company that is geographically far away


  • Advantages

    • Focus on unique core competencies

    • Exploit the intellect of another organization

    • Better predict future costs

    • Acquire leading-edge technology

    • Reduce costs

    • Improve performance accountability

  • Disadvantages

    • Reduces technical know-how for future innovation

    • Reduces degree of control

    • Increases vulnerability of strategic information

    • Increases dependency on other organizations


  • Prototyping

  • Prototype

  • Proof-of-concept prototype

  • Selling prototype


  • Advantages

    • Encourages active knowledge worker participation 

    • Helps resolve discrepancies among knowledge workers 

    • Gives users a feel for the final system 

    • Helps determine technical feasibility

    • Helps sell the idea of a proposed system 

  • Disadvantages

    • Leads people to believe the final system will follow shortly

    • Gives no indication of performance under operational conditions

    • Leads the project team to forgo proper testing and documentation