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Future of the GMD. Can it be improved? Are there other ways to fulfill its function?. Workshop Plan. background what is causing a re-evaluation of the GMD? Logical structure of AACR new 0.24 FRBR brief glance at proposed outline for AACR3 some ideas in the cataloguing community

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Future of the GMD


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    1. Future of the GMD Can it be improved? Are there other ways to fulfill its function? Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    2. Workshop Plan • background • what is causing a re-evaluation of the GMD? • Logical structure of AACR • new 0.24 • FRBR • brief glance at proposed outline for AACR3 • some ideas in the cataloguing community • ideas from you • discussion Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    3. GMD • general material designation • term indicating broad class of material • term first used in ISBDs in 1977 • term adopted by AACR2 • optional • different practices within AACR community Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    4. AACR1 • designations in parentheses Chap. 12. Motion pictures and filmstrips Shoe-shine (Motion picture) Lighthouses (Filmstrip) transcription of title + designation this is not a “uniform title” • very limited use • other non-book resources: no designations Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    5. AACR2 • general material designations + specific material designations • title proper + [GMD] • broad range of terms covering different contents and different carriers • optional Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    6. AACR2 • Intent when developing list of GMDs: “generic list of media designations that would minimize the disruption to library catalogues. This meant that the list of terms would be practical rather than theoretical or philosophical” Jean Weihs, A somewhat personal history of nonbook cataloguing. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 31:3/4, 2001, p. 177. Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    7. Function of the GMD • developed in the era of the card catalogue: • informs the user about the type of material • gives “early warning” because of its placement in the title area • not intended as a limit or as a search term • uses controlled vocabulary: LIST 1 or LIST 2 • differentiates between resourceswith identical or similar titles Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    8. Use of GMDs In the card catalogue: • identification • differentiation (to select, obtain appropriate resource) OPAC • identification • differentiation (to select, obtain appropriate resource) • controlled vocabulary search term Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    9. Where are the problems? • GMD evolved to answer a practical need • broadening of library resources to include non-book • dissatisfaction starts to appear as new media develop • new demands on cataloguing rules logical analysis + new theoretical frameworks questions about GMDs Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    10. Winds of change • re-examination of AACR • 1997 International Conference on the Principles and Future Development of AACR • development of analytical models • Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records • analyzes bibliographic records • Logical Structure of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules • analyzes the cataloguing rules that produce the description part of bibliographic records Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    11. 1997 International Conference 1997 International Conference on the Principles and Future Development of AACR • content vs carrier issue • need to be able to describe new media as they develop, deal with new forms of publishing, etc. • impact of electronic resources • identify principles and structures underlying AACR • revise rule 0.24 (among many other outcomes) Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    12. Logical Structure of AACR Tom Delsey’s logical analysis of AACR points out inconsistencies, problem areas, obstacles. • “class of materials” ≠ physical carrier (perspective: structure of rules in Part 1 and how to deal with new media, new forms of expression) • physical carrier only defines 5 of the classes of materials represented by chapters in Part 1 • mixture of chapters in Part 1 for content, form of expression and physical carrier Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    13. Logical Structure of AACR Class of materials analyzed: content cartographic materials graphic materials three-dimensional artefacts and realia form of expression music physical carrier sound recordings motion pictures videorecordings microforms computer files/electronic resources Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    14. Logical Structure of AACR GMDs inform user about the broad class of material content realia cartographic material form of expression music (expressed in musical notation) physical carrier filmstrip slide videorecording Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    15. Logical Structure of AACR • questions raised: • “if certain classes are defined on the basis of the form of the physical carrier and others are determined on the basis of the type of content or the intellectual form in which the content is expressed, how is a determination to be made as to which criterion takes precedence in classing new forms of material?” • boundaries between classes: are they precise enough, comprehensive enough? • if a resource belongs to more than one class? Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    16. Logical Structure of AACR Constituent entities or elements of the “document” analyzed: • content intellectual or artistic substance set as • infixion formatting of content stored on • physical carrier physical medium housed in • container physically separable housing significance of both content and physical carrier information Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    17. New 0.24 • change AACR rule 0.24 radical impact on organization of Part 1 FROM primacy of the one class of material to which the resource belongs starting point = physical form of the resource in hand TO bring out all aspects of the resource being described Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    18. Impact of new 0.24 assumption in old 0.24 class/type of materials = physical form with new 0.24: • does the current structure of the rules in Part 1 make any sense? Part 1 of AACR2 = mixture of chapters for form of content, form of expression and physical carriers Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    19. Impact of new 0.24 3 form of content chapters cartographic materials graphic materials three-dimensional artefacts and realia 1 form of expression chapter music 4 physical carrier chapters sound recordings motion pictures and videorecordings electronic resources microforms Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    20. Impact of new 0.24 • if all relevant aspects are to be described, what does one do about the GMD? (ISBD community also studying) some suggestions to combine GMDs: • GMD (qualifier) does this work with current lists of terms? does it only work if GMD = content/expression and qualifier = carrier • compound GMDs • GMD 1 + GMD 2 Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    21. FRBR: final report of IFLA Study Group • the report had 2 purposes: 1. to provide a clearly defined, structured framework for relating the data that are recorded in bibliographic records to the needs of the users of those records 2. to recommend a basic level of functionality for records created by national bibliographic agencies (FRBR 1.1) • report describes an entity-relationship model resulting from an analysis of the data in bibliographic records Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    22. User needs • Find • Identify • Select • Obtain • Navigate Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    23. FRBR model • entities ● in bibliographic records ● important to the user ● divided into 3 groups • attributes of the entities • relationships between the entities Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    24. Group 1 entities products of intellectual or artistic endeavour • work • expression • manifestation • item Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    25. Group 1 entities: work is realized through expression is embodied in manifestation is exemplified by FRBR 3.1.1 item Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    26. Example w = idea for the Robinson Crusoe story (in Defoe’s head) is realized through e = original English text as he wrote it is embodied in m = London, printed for W. Taylor, 1719 is exemplified by i = copy owned by Yale Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    27. Attributes of Group 1 entities: work: title, form or genre, date, medium of performance, coordinates (map) … expression: title of the expression, form of the expression, language of the expression, type of score … manifestation: title of the manifestation, publisher, date of publication, form of carrier, dimensions, terms of availability… item: identifier (e.g. location and call no., barcode), provenance, condition, inscriptions … Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    28. Entities in Groups 2 and 3 • Group 2 entities: those responsible for creating, producing, etc., the entities in group 1 • person • corporate body • Group 3 entities: subjects of works • concept • object • event • place +all group 1 and 2 entities can also be subjects Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    29. Relationships • links between entities(and the nature of the links) • collocation • assist the user to navigate through the catalogue or database relationships between entities of the same group (esp. between group 1 entities) relationships between entities of the different groups Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    30. Example of a “family” or hierarchy of Group 1 entities: work expression manifestation item Hamlet # original text • London, 1603 RBD • New York, 1998 MCL BIRK # French trans. # (Gide) • Paris, 1946 EDUC • Neuchatel, 1949 MCL # (Bonnefoy) • Paris, 1978 MACD # German trans. • Hamburg, 1834 MUSIC # audio-book • Paris, 1983 REDP Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    31. Example of work to work relationships Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616. Hamlet. subjectModern Hamlets & their soliloquies Critical responses to Hamlet, 1600-1900 imitationHamlet travestie transformationHamlet : opéra en cinq actes musique de Ambroise Thomas; paroles de Michel Carré et Jules Barbier adaptationHamlet : the young reader's Shakespeare : a retelling /by Adam McKeown Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    32. User-friendly OPAC display ti = Robinson Crusoe results should clearly show: •the work vs related works • indicate nature of relationship between the different expressions of the work original text, French translation, audio-book • cluster manifestations that are the same expression • sort by different physical carriers Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    33. Impact of FRBR • improve navigation • focus on collocation • reintroduce logical indexing vs. purely mechanical filing • appropriate level of specificity needed by user: • ability to stay at general level to complete user tasks, or to bore down to specific expressions, manifestations, including down to the appropriate physical carrier Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    34. Impact of FRBR • identification of group 1 entities and their attributes expression-level: form e.g. musical notation photographic image language manifestation-level: form of carrier e.g. filmstrip extent of carrier • model puts some longstanding problems in perspective e.g. content vs. carrier(or format variation) • different but how different : where is carrier in the hierarchy? Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    35. bib record (FRBR) work expression manifestation item document (Log.St.) content infixion physical carrier container FRBR and Logical Structure:2 entity-relationship analytical models Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    36. Logical Structure vs FRBR • Logical Structure: analysis of the rules that produce the description part of the bibliographic record • FRBR: analysis of the whole bibliographic record in the context of the database • Both models: pull out constituent entities, examine what has been taken as unreflected assumptions Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    37. Logical Structure identifies the problem FRBR gives us the tools to work on the problem allows us to frame the question in a sound theoretical framework Logical Structure vs FRBR Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    38. Some sources of pressure on GMD Logical Structure new 0.24 of AACR GMD FRBR Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    39. Post 1997 International Conference • some of the key areas of work by JSC • basic principles • content vs. carrier issue • logical structure of AACR • seriality • internationalization • incorporating FRBR terminology and concepts • JSC develops new strategic plan, which will culminate in AACR3 (2007) Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    40. Relevant areas of change in AACR3 • reduce redundancy and revise for consistency across all chapters in Part I • rewrite introduction to include a statement of the principles of AACR, a description of the functions of the catalogue, and conceptual information to assist cataloguers in understanding the methods of procedure • incorporate FRBR concepts and terminology into AACR • incorporate concept of authority control Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    41. Relevant areas of change in AACR3 • incorporate expression-level collocation • resolve problems associated with class of materials concept (content versus carrier issues, GMDs) some revision tasks affect almost every chapter e.g. incorporating FRBR terminology requires incorporating the concepts changes throughout AACR Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    42. AACR3: Resource Description and Access • Introduction - General principles • Part I - Description • Part II - Choice of access points • Part III – Form of access points (this slide & following ones based on information from Barbara Tillett’s document: AACR3: Resource Description and Access, 2004) Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    43. AACR3 – Part I (Proposal) • Introduction • General rules • by ISBD area with references forward to supplemental rules for specific content types • Chapters for content • only supplemental rules, no references back to General chapter • Chapters for medium/technical description • primarily area 5 with relevant physical description notes from area 7 • Chapter(s) on mode of issuance • successively issued over time Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    44. AACR3 – Part I (Proposal)Introduction • Introduction to Part I • scope • structure of the description • organization of the rules • focus for description • application of general and supplementary rules • resources in an unpublished form • resources released successively or updated periodically • options and omissions Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    45. AACR3 – Part I (Proposal)General rules • General rules for description • Preliminary rules • Rules for each of the 8 ISBD areas: • Title and statement of responsibility • Edition • Material specific details • Publication, distribution, etc. • Technical description • Series • Notes • Standard numbers • Supplementary resources • Reproductions • Analytics and multilevel descriptions Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    46. AACR3 - Part I (Proposal) Content Chapters • Text • Music • Cartographic content • Graphic content • Three-dimensional content • Recorded sound • Moving image content • Data, software, & interactive content Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    47. AACR3 - Part I (Proposal)Medium/Technical Description • Print media • Micrographic media • Graphic media • Tactile media • Three-dimensional media • Recorded sound media • Moving image media • Digital media Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    48. AACR3 - Part I (Proposal)Modes of Issuance • Successively issued or updated periodically • Build on information in Introduction • Base on “symptoms” • More discussions with the Editor Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    49. AACR3 – Part II (Proposal) • Choice of primary and secondary access points • Choosing headings for the description • Resolve issues of authorship and problems with the “Rule of 3” Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004

    50. AACR3–Part III (Proposal) • Form of access points • Current chapters 22-25 to incorporate authority control principles and rules on related references • remove chapter 26 on references • Chapter 25 (Uniform titles)  headings for works and expressions • Functions of work/expression citations, i.e., for identification, collocation, differentiation Chris Oliver, McGill University OLAC 2004