CHAPTER 3 MIGRATION
GEOGRAPHY & MIGRATION • HGs look at: • From where people migrate • To where people migrate • Why people migrate
MIGRATION cont. EMIGRATION IMMIGRATION To a location - When I was 12 I immigrated to Malvern from Exton • From a location - Three years ago I emigrated from Malvern to Downingtown Net Migration – difference between E and I (know positive/negative; net-in/net-out)
ISSUE #1 Why do People Migrate?
REASONS FOR MIGRATING • Most people migrate for economic reasons • Also migrate due to cultural and environmental factors • Don’t forget the role of distance decay in this matter!!! (why more Mexican workers than Argentinean?)
D I S T A N C E D E C A Y
PUSH/PULL FACTORS: ECONOMIC • Better job opportunities may pull/bad economy may push • Certain resources attract certain professions (petroleum may attract miners/engineers) • Area with rapid population growth will pull in service workers (construction workers, restaurant workers)
Scene from The Grapes of Wrath The Dust Bowl in the 1930s led to forced migration from the Great Plains to California and elsewhere.
PUSH/PULL FACTORS: CULTURAL Cultural factors such as slavery and political instability Creation of new countries with new boundaries (people on wrong side of the border – ex. India/Pakistan in late 1940s) Wars create refugees (ex. Sudan) Hope of democracy may pull people in (Cubans coming to America)
Refugees: Sources & Destinations Fig. 3-1: Major source and destination areas of both international and internal refugees. KNOW THIS MAP!!!!!!
PUSH/PULL FACTORS: ENVIRONMENTAL • Pull towards attractive areas (warm climates, mountains, beaches…) • Health concerns may force them to seek a new climate • Water issues/disasters force many to move (Hurricane Katrina) • Droughts causes others to leave (Sahel region of northern Africa)
Hurricane Katrina Migrants A major natural disaster represents an environmental push factor for forced migration.
INTERVENING OBSTACLES • Before modern transportation they were mostly environmental (ex. Gold Rushers had a hard time getting to California……why?) • More modern IOs include such things as government regulations (ex. Quotas)
INTERNAL MIGRATION • Permanent movement within the same country • Two types 1. interregional – from one region of a country to another (ex. NE to West) - historically, the main type has been from rural to urban areas (why?) 2.intraregional– movement within one region (ex. Florida to Georgia) - historically, the main type has been within urban areas
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION • Permanent movement from one country to another • Two types 1. Voluntary – person chose to move for economic improvement 2. Forced– compelled to move due to cultural factors, felt they didn’t have a choice *** be aware of migration transition (p.87) *** you are responsible for “Characteristics of Migrants” on your own (pp. 87-88)
ISSUE #2 Where are Migrants Distributed?
GLOBAL MIGRATION PATTERNS • Net Out = Asia, Latin America, Africa • Net In = North America, Europe, Oceania • Pattern of migration from LDCs to MDCs • Highest percentage of immigrants is found in the Middle East (why?, doesn’t seem to make sense)
Global Migration Patterns Fig. 3-2: The major flows of migration are from less developed to more developed countries.
Net Migration (per population) Fig. 3-3: Net migration per 1000 population. The U.S. has the largest number of immigrants, but other developed countries also have relatively large numbers.
U.S. IMMIGRATION PATTERNS • 3 main eras of migration: 1. colonial period • mid-1800s-early 1900s • 1970s-today
COLONIAL IMMIGRATION • Came from Europe (voluntary) and Africa (forced) • Prior to 1840, 90% of European immigrants came from G.B. • 400,000 slaves before 1808; 250,000 after
Mid-1800s – EARLY 1900s • U.S. offered the greatest hope of economic success (almost all during this Era were from Europe, the most from which country?) • Europeans who didn’t come to the U.S. went mostly to temperate climates (ex. Canada, Australia, southern Africa, southern South America……why?) • There have been three “peaks” of European immigration
RECENT IMMIGRATION (1970s – today) • Immigration dropped sharply during1930s and 1940s (why?) • Has surged since the 1970s, most from Latin America and Asia
IMMIGRATION FROM ASIA • 7 million from Asia in last 25 years • China, Philippines, India, Vietnam • Many also go to Canada (Canada receives a higher % of Europeans and lower % of Latin Americans – what might explain this?)
IMMIGRATION FROM LATIN AMERICA • 13 million from 1960 – 2005 (overtook Asia in the 1980s as the leading source of immigrants) • Most from Mexico (compare to Germany) and The Dominican Republic • Significant role played by the Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986) • same reason as other regions (pushed by poor economic situation and pulled by economic opportunity)
Migration to U.S., by Region of Origin Fig. 3-4: Most migrants to the U.S were from Europe until the 1960s. Since then, Latin America and Asia have become the main sources of immigrants.
Migration from Asia to the U.S. Fig. 3-5: The largest numbers of migrants from Asia come from India, China, the Philippines, and Vietnam.
Migration from Latin America to the U.S. Fig. 3-6: Mexico has been the largest source of immigrants to the U.S., but immigrants have also come from numerous other Latin American nations.
U.S. States as Immigrant Destinations Fig. 3-8: California is the destination of about 25% of all US immigrants; another 25% go to New York and New Jersey. Other important destinations include Florida, Texas, and Illinois.
BIG PICTURE • Pattern of immigration in U.S. has changed from mostly European to mostly Asian and Latin American • Reasons remain the same, pushed by poor economic/political conditions and pulled by economic and social opportunities
review • During the late 20th century most immigrants came from ___ and ___ • One reason fewer Europeans migrate to the U.S. is due to the fact that they have low _____ and _____ that can support the population. They are in stage ___ • Crossing the U.S./Mexican border is relatively easy (T/F) • Define “undocumented immigrant” • List the 4 states in which more than 50% of recent immigrants are clustered • More than ¼ of all undocumented immigrants are located in this state alone • Define Chain migration • Why have Mexican migrants recently started going to the Midwest in larger numbers? • What was the point and impact of the enclosure movement?
review • During the late 20th century most immigrants came from ___ and ___ (Asia and Latin America) • One reason fewer Europeans migrate to the U.S. is due to the fact that they have low _____ and _____ that can support the population. They are in stage ___ (natural increase rates; economies; 4) • Crossing the U.S./Mexican border is relatively easy (T) • Define “undocumented immigrant” (people who enter the country without proper documents) • List the 4 states in which more than 50% of recent immigrants are clustered (California, New York, Florida, Texas) • More than ¼ of all undocumented immigrants are located in this state alone (California) • Define Chain migration (the migration of people to a specific location, because relatives or members of the same nationality migrated there) • Why have Mexican migrants recently started going to the Midwest in larger numbers? (take industrial jobs shunned by Americans) • What was the point and impact of the enclosure movement? (to make farms in England more efficient. It forced millions to emigrate from rural areas)
ISSUE #3 Why do Migrants Face Obstacles?
IMMIGRATION POLICIES of HOST COUNTRIES • Two policies used by host countries to control arrival of foreigners seeking work: • Quota system • Temporary Work
QUOTA LAWS • Quota Act (1921) • National Origins Act (1924) • These two remained relatively unchanged until the 1960s • European bias ???? • Led to a decline in immigration • By 1968 national quotas were replaced with “hemisphere” quotas • Hemisphere quotas were replaced by global quotas in 1978 • breakdown of what type of people are permitted? (most are to reunite families) • Does this apply to refugees? • Asians have very effectively used the family preference strategy, leading to a great deal of chain migration
BRAIN DRAIN • Effects of U.S. immigration policies on countries with a lot of emigrants • Some are unhappy that they are losing this “brain power” to Europe and the U.S. • Should the U.S. care?
TYPES OF TEMPORARY WORKERS GUEST WORKERS TIME-CONTRACT WORKERS Workers from Asia recruited for a fixed period for a specific job (railroads, mines, plantations…) Many stayed after that time expired Many Chinese living in other Asian nations • Citizens of poor countries who obtain jobs in Europe and the ME • Take low-skilled, low-status jobs that locals don’t fill • Benefits home and new country in different ways such as….? • What protects them from exploitation? • Most in Europe come from NA, ME, EE/SE and Asia • A lot of Turks in Germany
ECONOMIC MIGRANT OR REFUGEE?(why does it matter?) Haitians were considered economic, not political refugees in the ‘80s until changed by a lawsuit by the Haitian people Cuban emigrants are seen as political refugees since the ’59 revolution - concentrated in Florida • Surge of Vietnamese to U.S. after 1975 created some issues (boat people) • 2nd surge in late ‘80s to other Asian nations • about 800,000 have ended up in the U.S.
CULTURAL PROBLEMS FACED WHILE LIVING IN OTHER COUNTRIES U.S. Attitudes toward Immigrants Europe & Guest Workers Isolated (usually arrive alone, send most money back home, experience language & cultural barriers) Some natives dislike/fear guest workers (why?) Recent efforts in Europe and ME to reduce the # of guest workers due to lower economic growth Troubles in Fiji? • 19th century – immigrants were often viewed with suspicion but helped settle new territories and extend U.S. control • Opposition increased in early 20th century as the frontier “closed” • Recent issues about things such as allowing/denying undocumented immigrants access to public services such as schools, day-care centers, health clinics…
ISSUE #4 Why do People Migrate Within a Country?
TYPES OF INTERNAL MIGRATRION (WITHIN THE SAME COUNTRY) INTERREGIONAL (between regions) INTRAREGIONAL (within the same region) Usually from older cities to suburbs • Usually between rural and urban areas
MIGRATION BETWEEN REGIONS WITHIN THE U.S. • Interregional was more prevalent in the past (why?) • Most famous example of large-scale internal migration in U.S. history? (interregional or intraregional?) • Population center has changed over the past 200 years (how? Why?)
Interregional Migration in the U.S. Fig. 3-13: Average annual migrations between regions in the U.S. in 1995 and in 2003
Intraregional Migration in the U.S. Fig. 3-14: Average annual migration among urban, suburban, and rural areas in the U.S. during the 1990s. The largest flow was from central cities to suburbs.
CHANGING CENTERS OF POPULATION IN U.S. RECENT GROWTH OF THE SOUTH EARLY SETTLEMENT OF THE INTERIOR SETTELEMENT OF THE GREAT PLAINS - See worksheet
Center of Population in the U.S. Fig. 3-12: The center of U.S. population has consistently moved westward, with the migration of people to the west. It has also begun to move southward with migration to the southern sunbelt.
MIGRATION WITHIN ONE REGION(WITHIN THE SAME COUNTRY) • Much more intraregional than interregional migration today • Usually from rural to urban areas • Today nearly ½ of world’s population lives in urban areas, in 1800 it was about 5%