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Unhappy with your grade on the last exam? Try these strategies! • Come to every lecture. Hearing things different ways helps! • Read the chapter before lecture. Hearing things twice means you’ll retain information. • Focus. Stop checking Facebook during lecture. • Use your smartphone to make flashcards with definitions of key terms. • Hit your TA up for help during office hours
QUIZ #5 OPENS MONDAY AT 4:00 Good luck!
Chapter 10 review Chapter 10 review Beijing Urbanization: Life in the City
Urbanization: Key questions Why is urbanization is one of the most important geographic phenomena in today’s world. How do changes in the world economy drive urbanization? How do rapidly growing populations strain city infrastructures? What effects do inadquate infrastructures and services have on urban populations?
I. What role do cities play in the world? Mobilize: Organize labor, capital and raw materials to produce goods and drive economies. Make Decisions: Cities concentrate political and economic institutions and concentrate power, so decisions get made.
I. What role do cities play in the world (cont.)? Generate innovation: By concentrating people in one space, cities promote collaboration, competition, and the development of new ideas. Transform populations: The size and anonymity of city life liberates people to participate in new lifestyles and behaviors.
How do we think about cities? NYC neighborhood Urban Systems: a group of related cities in a region. Urban form: the built environment Urban ecology: the social and demographic composition of neighborhoods
Histories of Urban Development The Rise of City Life
The rise of cities Erbil, Iraq: The world’s oldest city. 6000 years of continuous occupation City life arose in the ancient Middle East---from 3500 BC! Large scale political organization is key to the rise of cities. Political elites organize taxation, building, and the control of labor
European Urbanization Jagiellonian University, Krakow Rome, the seat of empire, is Europe’s first big city. Other cities emerge in the medieval period: university centers, religious centers, defensive strongholds, administrative centers
The Rise of Gateway Cities Gateway cities link one country or region with others. Developed in 15th-17th centuries for trade and colonial administration. Often port cities: Rio de Janeiro, Accra, Buenos Aires.
Industrialization • The industrial revolution created new city spaces in the early 19thc. • Large pools of labor and extensive physical infrastructure (like factories). • The countryside empties and people leave for the city Cotton mills in Manchester, 1850
Shock Cities • Manchester: • 1750: 15,000 • 1801: 70,000 • 1911: 2.3 million • Chicago: • 1850: 30,000 • 1880: 500,000 • 1900: 1.7 million • 1930: 3.3 million Chicago: city of industrial agriculture
Contemporary City Forms What do Cities look like today?
Primate Cities • Primate cities: world cities disproportionately larger than second cities • Violate the rank-size rule • Nth largest city should be 1/n the size of largest city • Are “central places” that are functionally dominant
World Cities *Organize space beyond their own national boundaries *Originally colonial or imperial cities: Istanbul, London, Genoa, Lisbon *Today: are key sites of TNC organization, international finance, supranational government, and commodity markets. (Examples?) *Benefit from agglomeration effects.
World Cities: Spheres of Influence Based on international headquarters of TNCs and business services
Periphery urbanizing faster than core Increasing Urbanization
Peripheral and Semi-peripheral megacities Population: 10 million and up. Industrialization in peripheral and semi-peripheral cities leads to high rates of urbanization Related to demographic transition
Overurbanization Brazilian favela Urban population grows faster than jobs and city services. Produces urban slums Lack housing, education, basic sanitation, employment, and emergency services Kill more than 10 million people per year from disease
TAKE-HOME POINTS Increasing population growth and industrialization has led to the rise of megacities. These cities are largely in the periphery With relatively low GDP, they have a hard time providing housing, education, and sanitation. Poor living conditions affect the lives of millions of people