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Unhappy with your grade on the last exam? Try these strategies!. Come to every lecture. Hearing things different ways helps! Read the chapter before lecture. Hearing things twice means you’ll retain information. Focus. Stop checking Facebook during lecture.

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unhappy with your grade on the last exam try these strategies
Unhappy with your grade on the last exam? Try these strategies!
  • Come to every lecture. Hearing things different ways helps!
  • Read the chapter before lecture. Hearing things twice means you’ll retain information.
  • Focus. Stop checking Facebook during lecture.
  • Use your smartphone to make flashcards with definitions of key terms.
  • Hit your TA up for help during office hours
slide3

Chapter 10 review

Chapter 10 review

Beijing

Urbanization:

Life in the City

urbanization key questions
Urbanization: Key questions

Why is urbanization is one of the most important geographic phenomena in today’s world.

How do changes in the world economy drive urbanization?

How do rapidly growing populations strain city infrastructures?

What effects do inadquate infrastructures and services have on urban populations?

i what role do cities play in the world
I. What role do cities play in the world?

Mobilize: Organize labor, capital and raw materials to produce goods and drive economies.

Make Decisions: Cities concentrate political and economic institutions and concentrate power, so decisions get made.

i what role do cities play in the world cont
I. What role do cities play in the world (cont.)?

Generate innovation: By concentrating people in one space, cities promote collaboration, competition, and the development of new ideas.

Transform populations: The size and anonymity of city life liberates people to participate in new lifestyles and behaviors.

how do we think about cities
How do we think about cities?

NYC neighborhood

Urban Systems: a group of related cities in a region.

Urban form: the built environment

Urban ecology: the social and demographic composition of neighborhoods

histories of urban development
Histories of Urban Development

The Rise of City Life

the rise of cities
The rise of cities

Erbil, Iraq: The world’s oldest city.

6000 years of continuous occupation

City life arose in the ancient Middle East---from 3500 BC!

Large scale political organization is key to the rise of cities.

Political elites organize taxation, building, and the control of labor

european urbanization
European Urbanization

Jagiellonian University, Krakow

Rome, the seat of empire, is Europe’s first big city.

Other cities emerge in the medieval period: university centers, religious centers, defensive strongholds, administrative centers

the rise of gateway cities
The Rise of Gateway Cities

Gateway cities link one country or region with others.

Developed in 15th-17th centuries for trade and colonial administration.

Often port cities: Rio de Janeiro, Accra, Buenos Aires.

industrialization
Industrialization
  • The industrial revolution created new city spaces in the early 19thc.
  • Large pools of labor and extensive physical infrastructure (like factories).
  • The countryside empties and people leave for the city

Cotton mills in Manchester, 1850

shock cities
Shock Cities
  • Manchester:
    • 1750: 15,000
    • 1801: 70,000
    • 1911: 2.3 million
  • Chicago:
    • 1850: 30,000
    • 1880: 500,000
    • 1900: 1.7 million
    • 1930: 3.3 million

Chicago: city of industrial agriculture

contemporary city forms
Contemporary City Forms

What do Cities look like today?

primate cities
Primate Cities
  • Primate cities: world cities disproportionately larger than second cities
  • Violate the rank-size rule
    • Nth largest city should be 1/n the size of largest city
  • Are “central places” that are functionally dominant
world cities
World Cities

*Organize space beyond their own national boundaries

*Originally colonial or imperial cities: Istanbul, London, Genoa, Lisbon

*Today: are key sites of TNC organization, international finance, supranational government, and commodity markets.

(Examples?)

*Benefit from agglomeration effects.

slide17

World Cities: Spheres of Influence

Based on international headquarters of TNCs and business services

peripheral and semi peripheral megacities
Peripheral and Semi-peripheral megacities

Population: 10 million and up.

Industrialization in peripheral and semi-peripheral cities leads to high rates of urbanization

Related to demographic transition

overurbanization1
Overurbanization

Brazilian favela

Urban population grows faster than jobs and city services.

Produces urban slums

Lack housing, education, basic sanitation, employment, and emergency services

Kill more than 10 million people per year from disease

take home points
TAKE-HOME POINTS

Increasing population growth and industrialization has led to the rise of megacities.

These cities are largely in the periphery

With relatively low GDP, they have a hard time providing housing, education, and sanitation.

Poor living conditions affect the lives of millions of people