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Unhappy with your grade on the last exam? Try these strategies!. Come to every lecture. Hearing things different ways helps! Read the chapter before lecture. Hearing things twice means you’ll retain information. Focus. Stop checking Facebook during lecture.
Chapter 10 review
Life in the City
Why is urbanization is one of the most important geographic phenomena in today’s world.
How do changes in the world economy drive urbanization?
How do rapidly growing populations strain city infrastructures?
What effects do inadquate infrastructures and services have on urban populations?
Mobilize: Organize labor, capital and raw materials to produce goods and drive economies.
Make Decisions: Cities concentrate political and economic institutions and concentrate power, so decisions get made.
Generate innovation: By concentrating people in one space, cities promote collaboration, competition, and the development of new ideas.
Transform populations: The size and anonymity of city life liberates people to participate in new lifestyles and behaviors.
Urban Systems: a group of related cities in a region.
Urban form: the built environment
Urban ecology: the social and demographic composition of neighborhoods
The Rise of City Life
Erbil, Iraq: The world’s oldest city.
6000 years of continuous occupation
City life arose in the ancient Middle East---from 3500 BC!
Large scale political organization is key to the rise of cities.
Political elites organize taxation, building, and the control of labor
Jagiellonian University, Krakow
Rome, the seat of empire, is Europe’s first big city.
Other cities emerge in the medieval period: university centers, religious centers, defensive strongholds, administrative centers
Gateway cities link one country or region with others.
Developed in 15th-17th centuries for trade and colonial administration.
Often port cities: Rio de Janeiro, Accra, Buenos Aires.
Cotton mills in Manchester, 1850
Chicago: city of industrial agriculture
What do Cities look like today?
*Organize space beyond their own national boundaries
*Originally colonial or imperial cities: Istanbul, London, Genoa, Lisbon
*Today: are key sites of TNC organization, international finance, supranational government, and commodity markets.
*Benefit from agglomeration effects.
Based on international headquarters of TNCs and business services
Population: 10 million and up.
Industrialization in peripheral and semi-peripheral cities leads to high rates of urbanization
Related to demographic transition
Urban population grows faster than jobs and city services.
Produces urban slums
Lack housing, education, basic sanitation, employment, and emergency services
Kill more than 10 million people per year from disease
Increasing population growth and industrialization has led to the rise of megacities.
These cities are largely in the periphery
With relatively low GDP, they have a hard time providing housing, education, and sanitation.
Poor living conditions affect the lives of millions of people