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Common Core State Standard Informative Text Strategies for Teachers of 1 st – 3 rd Grade. by Kathy Chappell-Muncy MS Ed. Reading and Literacy. What are Common Core State Standards? (CCSS).

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Common core state standard informative text strategies for teachers of 1 st 3 rd grade

Common Core State Standard Informative Text Strategies for Teachers of 1st – 3rd Grade

by Kathy Chappell-Muncy

MS Ed. Reading and Literacy

What are common core state standards ccss
What are Common Core State Standards? (CCSS) Teachers of 1

A consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn so teachers and parents know what they need to do to help them

Designed to be robust and relevant to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that our young people need for success in college and careers

So American students are fully prepared for the future and our communities will be best positioned to compete successfully in the global economy

Why ccss
Why CCSS? Teachers of 1

Developed due to inconsistent education standards throughout the states

Previous education standards by state, listed skills students are expected to achieve by the time they graduate each grade

Why ccss cont
Why CCSS cont. Teachers of 1

Due to these concerns with students preparedness for college and careers upon graduation, education leaders across 48 states along with National Governors and the Chief State School Officers, wrote a set of standards for students across the U.S

Ccss in english language arts ela foundational skills
CCSS In English Language Arts (ELA): Teachers of 1 Foundational Skills

ELA CCSS for each grade in reading is divided into three strands:

  • Foundational skills

  • Phonological awareness (K&1)

  • Phonics and word recognition (K-3)

  • Fluency (K-3)

  • Print concepts (K&1)

  • Phonological awareness (K&1)

  • Phonics and word recognition (K-3)

  • Fluency (K-3)


Ccss ela informational text
CCSS ELA Informational Text Teachers of 1

  • Informational text

  • Key ideas and details (K-3)

  • Craft and structure (K-3)

  • Integration of knowledge `

  • and ideas (K-3)

  • Range of reading and level of text complexity (K-3)

    A paraphrased CCSS Parents Handbook is available at:

Ccss ela literature
CCSS ELA Literature Teachers of 1

  • Literature

  • Key ideas and details (K-3)

  • Craft and structure (K-3)

  • Integration of knowledge and ideas (K-3)

  • Range of reading and text complexity (K-3)

Six reasons to use informational text in primary grades
Six Reasons to Use Informational Text In Primary Grades Teachers of 1

Provides the key to success in later schooling

Prepares students to handle real-life reading

Appeals to readers' preferences

Addresses students' questions and interests

Builds knowledge of the natural and social world

Boosts vocabulary and other kinds of literacy knowledge

(Scholastic, 2003)

First grade ccss informational text reading strategies
First Grade CCSS Informational Text Reading Strategies Teachers of 1

Ask and Answer Questions About Key Details in a Text

I Have a Question. Begin this strategy by sharing the title and the cover of a book.

  • Ask the students if anyone has questions based on the cover and the title.

  • Record the questions on chart paper. Tell the students they will try to answer these questions while reading the book.

  • While reading, or after reading, note the answers found next to the questions on the chart paper.

  • Use: T-graph

First grade ccss informational text strategies cont
First Grade CCSS Informational Text Strategies cont Teachers of 1.

Questioning and Answering Strip Activity

Students are given two sets of sentence strips. One set has questions and the other set has key details.

The students must match up a question strip with

the correct key details strip.

Grouping: partner

First grade cont
First Grade cont. Teachers of 1

QuAD:QuADstands for Questions, Answers, and Details.

Children are given a topic. Next, they create questions. Using the QuADstructure, students record the questions they have in the first column, answers they find while listening or reading in the second column, and the details they learned in the thirdcolumn.

Quad strategy

First grade cont1
First Grade cont. Teachers of 1

Question Cubes

Students are given question cubes with the words: who, what, where, when, why and how on the sides of the cube.

Students roll the cube. Whatever question word they land on, they must ask a person in their group a question that starts with the word that is face up about the passage/story read.

Theother student responds. If the group doesn’t agree, have students use the book or passage to point out or support their answer.

The teacher can inform the students as to how many times they roll the cube.

Grouping: small or partner

Printable Cube Pattern or Template | A to Z Teacher Stuff Printable Pages and Worksheets

First grade cont2
First Grade cont. Teachers of 1

Text Feature Chart

The teacher creates a chart so the class can track the text

features they find in different books.

Introduce the as they appear in books while reading, or have students browse through a variety of books to identify different text features.

Ask students to record the text features they find before, during, or after reading (Kelley & Clausen-Grace, 2010).

text features

First grade cont3
First Grade cont. Teachers of 1

Identify the Main Topic

Can you tell me the important things that happened in the story?

Can you ask your own question about the topic?

Can you find one of the main ideas in the book?

Can you tell me how these two ideas are the same?

Can you tell me how they are different?

Main ideas template

First grade cont4
First Grade cont. Teachers of 1

Peer Partners. Students are paired. Invite partners to read and reread a story. Then partners will discuss what the text is mainly about.

After partners share, write or draw what the text is mainly about, ask them the following questions (Harvey &Goudyis, 2000):

1. How do you know this?

2. What details can you find, list or draw to support your conclusions about the main idea?

First grade cont5
First Grade cont. Teachers of 1

Main Idea Can. The teacher has a large coffee can, paint can, or any container. During reading, practice think-a-louds with students.

Afterreading a story or passage, have students come up with the main idea.

Write that on a strip of paper and put on the outside of the can.

Thenhave students come up with some key details from the story or passage.

Write those on strips and put inside the can.

Students can then pull the strips out of the can to retell the story/passage and make the connection back to the main topic or idea. Grouping: small

First grade cont6
First Grade Teachers of 1cont.

Main Idea/Details Recording Sheet. Students can use a main idea–supporting details recording sheet to help them differentiate main ideas or topics from supporting details as they read informational texts.

Before students independently complete this task, whole group and peer group practice should be provided.

First grade cont7
First Grade cont. Teachers of 1

QAR. Question-answer relationship is a research-based comprehension strategy that provides teachers and students with a common vocabulary for talking about types of questions and using these questions to comprehend text. The template

First, students must learn about and be able to classify the four types of questions. They are:

1. In-the-Book/Right There

2. In-the-Book/Think, Search and Find

3. In-My-Head/Author and Me

4. In-My-Head/On My Own

First grade cont8
First Grade cont. Teachers of 1

Connection Chain. Tell students that good readers make connections between individuals, events, ideas or information in a text.

To demonstrate, tell students that during the reading of the text they are to listen for the connections between

ex: planets and stars.

On a strip of paper write planet. Tell students that when they see or hear a connection to planet, they are to raise their hands.

After the students describe the connection, they can write the connection on to a strip a paper and “connect” it to the strip of paper with planet on it. Once students have linked connections to planet, they should be able to write or tell about the connections.

First grade strategies cont
First Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Create a Timeline

While reading a nonfiction text, students create a timeline of events, people, and ideas.

This can be done on an individual piece of paper or chart paper.

Students will share a connection they have made about how different events and people affect others.

Grouping: whole, small, partner, individual

First grade stragies cont
First Grade Stragies cont. Teachers of 1

Venn Diagram

After reading and discussing a piece of informational text, allow students to complete a Venn diagram with a partner to compare and contrast two individuals, events, or pieces of information from the text.

Then have students share with the whole group or within small groups.

Grouping: partner

First grade strategies cont1
First Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Feature Comparison

Point out variations among text features in several

books or articles.

Have students examine different examples of the same text feature and identify the differences in books and articles.

Author Author

Encourage students to include text features in their own

expository writing.

Ex: Students can add an index and a glossary of

important words to a class book, or they can organize a report with headings and a table of contents.

First grade strategies cont2
First Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Similarities and Differences

Tell students to read a portion of an informational text that is illustrated.

Have students then describe similarities and differences between the illustration and the text (Fountas, 2006).

Use a Venn diagram or a T graph to record.

Strategies for 2 nd grade ccss informational text
Strategies for 2 Teachers of 1nd Grade CCSS Informational Text


Strategy Procedure:

Survey- Preview titles, headings, pictures, and visual aids in the selection.

Scan and review questions, introductory and concluding paragraphs.

Question- The reader thinks about what he already knows about the topic

and generates questions that might be answered in the material.

Read- Attempt to answer questions brought about during the “Question”


Recite- The reader may stop after each section and “recite” what was just

read, summarizing the information. The reader orally answers any of his

questions found within the section read.

Review: Reread portions of the text where answers were provided.

(Robinson, 1961)

Second grade strategies cont
Second Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

What’s the Big Idea Mural

Before reading a nonfiction selection, A. activate students’ prior knowledge about the topic and ask them toB. listen for the most important information the author shares about the topic.

Let students know that they will draw pictures of the most important parts. After reading, ask each student to share an important part of the story.

Record these A. first on chart paper, and B. then on a long sheet of butcher paper stretched lengthwise across the floor or wall as students help place important parts in logical order.

Divide the paper into sections for each important idea, and ask students to select a picture to work on with a partner or small group.

After the pictures are completed, involve students in writing a summary.

Second grade strategies cont1
Second Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Sticky Note (whole group/teacher-led)

During the rereading of a read-aloud of an informational text, use sticky notes or highlighter tape to mark the big ideas

Discuss how information not highlighted contains information about these big ideas, but does not contain the most important ideas in the selection.

Second grade strategies cont2
Second Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1


The Read-Pair-Share strategy is based on the idea thatreaders summarize and clarifybetter with peer support.

Summarizing helps students demonstrate literal comprehension, and clarifying helps students ask and answer questions about text.

This strategy will help students keep the connections clear in the students’ minds (Larson and Dansereau,1986).

Read-Pair-Share. The Read-Pair-Share strategy is based on the idea that when readers summarize, it clarifies reading easier with peer support.

Second grade strategies cont3
Second Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

What Is Think-Pair-Share?Think-Pair-Share is a cooperative discussion strategy developed by Frank Lyman and his colleagues in Maryland. It gets its name from the three stages of student action, with emphasis on what students are to be DOING at each of those stages.

How Does It Work?1) Think. The teacher provokes students' thinking with a question or prompt or observation. The students should take a few moments (probably not minutes) just to THINK about the question.

2) Pair. Using designated partners (such as with Clock Buddies), nearby neighbors, or a desk mate, students PAIR up to talk about the answer each came up with. They compare their mental or written notes and identify the answers they think are best, most convincing, or most unique.

3) Share. After students talk in pairs for a few moments (again, usually not minutes), the teacher calls for pairs to SHARE their thinking with the rest of the class. She can do this by going around in round-robin fashion, calling on each pair; or she can take answers as they are called out (or as hands are raised). Often, the teacher or a designated helper will record these responses on the board or on the overhead

Second grade strategies cont4
Second Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Frayer Model. This graphic organizer allows students to place the new vocabulary term in the center and lists:

essential characteristics

nonessential characteristics



(Frayer, Frederick & Kausmeier,1969)


Second grade strategies cont5
Second Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Give a Hand

Have students trace their hands. The main topic/idea sentence can go in the palm.

Some, or all, of the fingers can contain the supporting details. Make sure students write sentences that support their main idea.

Display the hands around the classroom so students can look at each others’ work. Grouping: small, partner, individual

Students draw an illustration that depicts the main idea of the passage and adds a caption stating the main topic or idea. Grouping: partner or individual

Second grade s trategies cont
Second Grade Teachers of 1Strategies cont.

Missing Text (Main Idea)

Give students a diagram without labels or text.

In pairs have the students create a caption or text they think will match the diagram.

They can also give the diagram a title.

Second grade strategies cont6
Second Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Divide and Conquer

When reading informational text, divide students into groups of no more than three.

Assign each group an image to analyze.

Telleach group to list and share the key ideas each image communicates.

Groupsalso analyze whether the image clarifies or does not clarify the meaning of the text.

Compare main ideas with other groups

Second grade strategies cont7
Second Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Selective Underlining

Teacher models the use of underlining as one way to organize information in texts.

By projecting a text for the class to see, the teacher reads through the selection.

Then students reread and begin underlining words and phrases that represent key ideas.

As these think-aloudsprogress, main ideas can be underlined in one color, while details are underlined in another color.

When main points are not explicit, words can be generated and written in margins in the appropriate color.

Selective Underlining

Second grade strategies cont8
Second Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Main Ideas and Supporting Details on a Fish Organizer

After reading an informational text piece, give students a copy of a fish graphic organizer.

Each student is to locate a key point that the author makes and write it in the center of the fish and then write any supporting reason on the bones going diagonally.

Students can then turn the paper over and write a sentence or two explaining how those reasons support the key point.

Second grade strategies cont9
Second Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1


Students create a checklist of key points the texts have in common, as well as make a list of points each text has as its own. Grouping: small, partner, individual

Compare and contrast the texts:

1. Students complete a Venn diagram to They could write responses on the chart paper, handout, or use sticky notes to put on a chart. Grouping: small, partner, individual

2. Students write two sentences that tell how the texts are alike and two sentences that tell how they texts are different. Grouping: partner or individual

Second grade strategies cont10
Second Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1


Students read two texts on the same topic. After reading, students identify two similarities and two differences between the texts.

This can be adapted to 3-3-3, to be completed in the same way as 2-2-2.

Second grade strategies cont11
Second Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Tri-fold Brochure

Students then create a tri-fold brochure out of a large 11x14 or 12x18 piece of construction paper(

They can decorate the front of their brochure to reflect the topic of the two readings.

When it is opened flat, students write the title of one text on the left and will list information that is specific to this text.

They will write the title of the second text at the top of the right side and will list information that is specific to this text.

The middle is for information that both texts have in common. Students can write and/or draw on all three sections. Students can then share their information.

Second grade strategies cont12
Second Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1


1. Students write three key terms from what they have just learned

Students write two ideas they would like to learn more about

Students write one concept or skill they think they have mastered.

Grouping: individual

3-2-1 template

Second grade strategies cont13
Second Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Annotation Notation Rubric. Have students use the following symbols to show understanding of the text:

The main idea (Draw a box around the main idea.)

____ Details (Underline the details.)

Words to remember (Circle key words to remember.)

Write a summary

Grouping: partner or individual

Third grade strategies
Third Grade Strategies Teachers of 1

Author and Me Analysis.

Using a T-chart, have students compare their purpose for reading to the author’s purpose for writing.

Students record important information on the left side of the chart.

Students then make connections from their purpose for reading to the author’s purpose for writing and record those on the right side of the chart

Third grade strategies cont
Third Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1


  • Groups of students read different passages. Next, students work together to create signs for the main idea and the key details of their selection.

  • Thestudent holding the main idea sign then presents it to the class anddefends their choice.

  • Next: Each of the students holding a key detail sign defendshow their key detail supports the main idea.

  • Students must come to consensus for each step.

Third grade strategies cont1
Third Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Cause and Effect

This strategy allows students to use critical thinking about a topic or event.

Definitions below simplify the terms for students.

Cause: An event that makes something else happen.

Effect: The result of the cause. The effect happens after the cause.

Third grade strategies cont2
Third Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1


Students can record the steps from a procedure or other sequential event on separate cards or sequence graphic organizer(Beers and Howell, 2003).

They then exchange with a different group who then decides the proper order.

When called on, the group will stand and show their cards in sequential order. They will defend their reasoning for the order. (Fishbone or chain)

Third grade strategies cont3
Third Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Word Sorts

Sorts can be categoriesto sound features, according to relationships between pronunciations or how they look, according to origin and according to meaning (Reading First, 2004).

Visual Sorts: Examine word features and compare with another word

Third grade strategies cont4
Third Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Blind Sorts:

A wordis read to the student and the student decides on placement in categories without seeing the word first.

The student checks categorization after word is placed.

Third grade strategies cont5
Third Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Speed Sorts: The student is asked to work quickly and accurately trying to beat the clock.

Write to the Sorts: Students have key words available for reference. The words are read for them and they write the words correctly in the appropriate category.

Third grade strategies cont6
Third Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Open Sorts:

Students choose categories for sorting and then organize items into columns based on categories.

Others try to solve the sort by guessing about the features of the categories.

Multiple Sorts: A set of items is sorted several times for different purposes in different categories.

Third grade strategies cont7
Third Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Organizational tools and sources of information

Text divisions identify how the text is organized and presented.

Some examples are menus on a web page, sidebars, chapters, sections, introductions, summaries, and author information.

2. help readers understand the information.

Some print and non-print examples are titles, table of contents, index, headings and subheadings, glossary, pronunciation guide, and references.

Third grade strategies cont8
Third Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

3. Graphicsshow information that is easier to understand because of its visual representation, or enhances what was written in the text.

Some examples are: hyperlinks, diagrams, charts and tables, graphs, maps, labels, photographs, illustrations, paintings, cutaway views, timelines, and captions.

Third grade strategies cont9
Third Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

4. Font size or formatting style, such as boldface, italic, or a change in font

signals the reader that these words are important.

5.Layout includes aids such as hyperlinks, insets, bullets, and numbers that

point readers to important information.

Third grade strategies cont10
Third Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Cubing. Start with a familiar topic and then move to more complex topics.

Create a cube Readance, Bean & Baldwin, 2004). The six sides of the cube


 Describe it: colors, shapes, and sizes

 Compare it: what is it similar to or different from?

 Associate it: what does it make the student think of?

 Analyze it: tell how it is made or what it is composed of

 Apply it: describe how it is used or what can be done with it

 Argue for or against it: Take a stand and list reasons for supporting

the idea.

Students then roll the cube and answer the topic by speaking or


Third grade strategies cont11
Third Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Investigative Reporting

Show maps or photos from different areas of study

and ask students what they notice that is common from each.

They should be able to respond by who, what, when, where, and how.

Third grade strategies cont12
Third Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Three facts and a falsehood

Have students study a map.

Then from just the information on the map, write three facts about the area on the map and one fib.

Each student then shows his/her map and the four statements with another student. It is the task of the other student to figure out which is the falsehood.

This could be completed with pairs of students working together.

Third grade strategies cont13
Third Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Build It Right

Cut apart three to five sentence strips with events from a historical event or steps to make or build an object.

Challenge students to arrange the strips in the correct order.

After they have selected the sequence, have them, build it/explain/defend the sequence.

Third grade strategies cont14
Third Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1

Compare and Contrast Chart

Compare two texts.

Students write how the overall main idea and key items are similar and then describe how each is different.

Third grade strategies cont15
Third Grade Strategies cont. Teachers of 1


Compare two historical figures and use the guiding questions to find similarities and differences. Answers to questions can be posted on a t-chart to compare.

Where are they from? How old are they? What is the gender and ethnic background of each? What are they known for?

Do they have any relationship to each other? What are their character traits?

Whatdid/do they do? What do they believe? Why are they interesting?

Whatstands out most about each of them?

Third grade strategies1
Third Grade Strategies Teachers of 1

Reading for the Gist

Students read an article or selection of text and list the answers to the 5W’s and H (who, what, where when, why and how).

Using a graphic organizer, students then write a 20 word summary using their notes.

A full description of this lesson plan is available here (Gray, 2012).

The end
The End Teachers of 1

Kathy Chappell-Muncy

Please be sure to include either the words Reading Horizons or Common Core Strategies in your message.

Thank you!

References Teachers of 1

Fountas, I. & Pinnell, G. (2006). Teaching for comprehending and fluency, K-8: Thinking, talking, and writing about reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Harvey, Stephanie, & Goudvis, Anne. (2000). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding. York, ME: Stenhouse

Kelley, M. & Clausen-Grace, N. (2010). Guiding students through expository text with text feature walks. The Reading Teacher, 64 (3), 191-195.

Robinson,F. (1961). Effective Study. New York: Harper and Row.

References cont
References cont. Teachers of 1

Larson, C. and Dansereau, D. (1986). Cooperative Learning in Dyads. Journal of Reading 29, 1986: 516–520.

Adapted from Reading & Writing Informational Text in the Primary Gradesby Nell K. Duke, Ed.D. and V. Susan Bennett-Armistead (Scholastic, 2003).

R eferences
R Teachers of 1eferences

Readence, J., Bean, T., & Baldwin, R. S. (2004). Content area literacy: An integrated approach. (8 ed., p. 222). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Gray, C. (2012). Get the gist: A summarizing strategy for any content area. Retrieved from:

References cont1
References cont. Teachers of 1

Illinois State Board of Education, Reading First. (2004). Reading first academy: Third grade module.

Beers, S., & Howell, L. (2003). Reading strategies for the content areas. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

References cont2
References cont. Teachers of 1 -