The role of simulation in photovoltaics from solar cells to arrays
Download
1 / 20

The Role of Simulation in Photovoltaics: From Solar Cells To Arrays - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 61 Views
  • Uploaded on

The Role of Simulation in Photovoltaics: From Solar Cells To Arrays. Ricardo Borges, Kurt Mueller, and Nelson Braga Synopsys, Inc. PV System Challenges. Improving PV efficiency Optimizing for design performance and target reliability Reducing the effects of variation on system performance

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' The Role of Simulation in Photovoltaics: From Solar Cells To Arrays' - cyrus-ramos


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
The role of simulation in photovoltaics from solar cells to arrays

The Role of Simulation in Photovoltaics: From Solar Cells To Arrays

Ricardo Borges, Kurt Mueller, and Nelson Braga

Synopsys, Inc.


Pv system challenges
PV System Challenges Arrays

  • Improving PV efficiency

  • Optimizing for design performance and target reliability

  • Reducing the effects of variation on system performance

  • Predicting manufacturing yields

  • Lowering production costs


Addressing issues at all stages
Addressing Issues at All Stages Arrays

Cell

Module

System

Synopsys Saber tools

Synopsys TCAD tools

  • Design criteria – Cell Level

  • Maximize efficiency

  • Optimize geometric and process parameters

  • Design criteria – Module Level

  • Minimize effect of interconnects on performance

  • Minimize impact of cell variation or degradation on module performance

  • Design Criteria – System Level

  • Maximize system performance accounting for diurnal solar inclination and tracking of solar path (some systems have 1- or 2-axis tracking of the sun)

  • Maximize system level efficiency delivered to the grid, including inverter system


What is tcad

Process Simulation Arrays

Device Simulation

Current in Drift-Diffusion Model

PDE for Pair Diffusion

Potential distribution in flash memory

LDMOS: doping, mesh

1D doping profile simulation

Inductance Simulation

PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition)

Snapback of a UMOS

Photogeneration in CIS

Full Chip H-Bridge

EM Wave

AlGaAs VCSEL

Mechanical stress in intermetal dielectric

What is TCAD?


Why simulate solar cells
Why Simulate Solar Cells? Arrays

New generation cell (Eff ~ 20%)

Early generation cell (Eff ~ 15-16%)

Source: SERIS

  • Continuous innovation makes cells more complex

    • More process and geometrical variables

    • 3D effects, complex light path, etc …

  • It’s impractical to design new cells without simulation

    • Too many experiments are needed to investigate design space

    • Risks missing optimum design and market window


Solar cell simulation flow

Dark & Light I-V Arrays

IQE, EQE

Electrical Data: SRH, Auger, BGN, Mobility

Process Simulation

Electrical Simulation

Device Geometry (doping profiles)

Device Geometry

Optical generation

External reflection

Solar Cell Simulation Flow

Input

Simulation

Output

Process Flow Recipe

Optical Simulation

Optical Data: n & k

Device Geometry (lifetime, doping profiles)


Example 2d cell optimization
Example: 2D Cell Optimization Arrays

  • Select parameters to be investigated

  • Parameterize the TCAD model

  • Run simulations

  • Visualize the influence of each parameter

Wfront

Sf

dlfsf

Nlfsf

Nbulk

dsub

tbulk

Sb

Nlbsf

dbsf

dlbsf

wback

wtot


Example unit cell optimization results
Example: Unit Cell Optimization Results Arrays

wfront wback wtot dsub Nbulk dbsf Nlbsf dlbsf Nlfsf dlfsf tbulk Sf Sb

eff

FF

Voc

jsc

  • Each array of points represents a separate simulated condition

  • Unit cell pitch, base layer thickness, doping, and lifetime, and surface recombination velocity show major influence on cell response

  • Design trade-offs can be investigated quantitatively


Application back contact silicon cells
Application: Back-contact Silicon Cells Arrays

  • Design problem: optimization of metal finger pitch to achieve good performance with low cost screen printing manufacturing

  • Simulation correctly captures the measured behavior across a range of contact pitch and bulk resistivity

  • Optimization of the structure results in 21.3% efficiency

Source: F. Granek et al, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 17, Oct 2008, pp 47-56

Antireflection

Coating (ARC)

Surface Texturing

n+ FSF

Base (n-type)

Passivation

Metal Contacts

n+ BSF

p+ emitter

Pitch


Application multi junction solar cells
Application: Multi-Junction Solar Cells Arrays

  • GaAs/GaInP Dual-Junction Cell

  • Excellent match between Sentaurus simulation and measurements in MJ cells

  • Calibrated model allows researchers to explore more advanced structures: Bragg reflectors, additional junctions, etc

Source: Philipps, S.S. et.al.. NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND MODELING OF III-V MULTI-JUNCTION SOLAR CELLS Proceedings of 23rd EUPVSEC, 2008


Cells to systems why simulate
Cells to Systems: Why simulate? Arrays

  • Cells alone are physically interesting;

  • Modules and Systems bring the power of the sun to the end user

  • Once cell behavior is understood, need model capable of system-level simulation to:

    • Minimize interconnect losses

    • Evaluate effects of environmental variation:

      • Light intensity and incidence angle

      • Temperature variation

      • Electrical environment

  • Optimize power conversion


What is saber
What is Saber? Arrays

Multi-domain circuit simulation…

enabling full system “Virtual Prototyping”

Power Electronics

Multiple Domains

Behavioral Models

Control Algorithms

Optimizing System Performance and Reliability

Nominal Design

Parameter Variation

Production Tolerances

Statistical Analyses

Fault Analyses

Worst-Case


Cells to modules
Cells to Modules Arrays

  • Design problem: active width optimization

  • Given TCAD device design, physical parameters contributing to interconnect resistances can be extracted and a system-level model developed


Module optimization
Module Optimization Arrays

Module Optimization: Variation of equivalent RSeries & RShunt

  • From system cell level model, sweeps can be done to determine the effect of different cell widths on module performance

  • Allows for optimization of Maximum Power Point at a module level as a function of luminance and cell width

V

V

IModule (A)


The role of simulation in photovoltaics from solar cells to arrays

Module Validation Arrays

  • Accurate, physics-based models take TCAD results to system simulation for validating real-world measurements


Modules to arrays and systems
Modules to Arrays and Systems Arrays

Photovoltaic Module Performance Verification at Different Cell Temperatures

Measurement of MPPT at Different Temperatures

  • Design problem: Thermal Effects on Module/Array performance and Maximum Power Point

  • Analysis of faults on strings within the array


The role of simulation in photovoltaics from solar cells to arrays

System Integration & Optimization Arrays

  • Simulation provides integrated test, validation and optimization environment for all aspects of the system:

Environment

Power Electronics

Control System & Algorithms


The role of simulation in photovoltaics from solar cells to arrays

Battery Charging System Simulation Arrays

  • System highlights:

  • Maximum Power Point Tracking through impedance matching using controlled DC/DC converter

  • Dynamic thermal capable array model


Unit cells to systems simulation
Unit Cells to Systems Simulation Arrays

  • Early validation of novel cell design

  • Development of application-optimized cells, modules and arrays

  • System level virtual prototyping for test & validation before anything physical is built