World Geography 11/12 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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World Geography 11/12

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  1. World Geography 11/12 • Geography Notes • HEI- reading/wkst • MAP QUIZ Wednesday • WARM UP- (pg. 38 ISN) Which Pyramid’s population is decline which one is increasing and why????

  2. Europe

  3. Peninsulas and Islands • Europe is a large peninsula stretching to the west of Asia • Called the “peninsula of peninsulas” • Result: most places are no more than 300 miles from the coast

  4. Peninsulas • Northern Peninsula • Scandinavian Peninsula (Norway, Sweden, and Finland) • Result of the movement of glaciers • Only thin top soil • Hard to farm • Fjords • Steep U shaped valleys that connect to the sea and filled with water after they melted Found in Norway • Jutland Peninsula (Denmark and northern Germany) • Gently rolling hills and swampy, low-lying areas

  5. Southern Peninsulas • Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) • PyreneesMountains blocked it from the rest of Europe • Italian Peninsula (Italy): Extends from Mediterranean Sea and Adriatic Seas- very rugged • Balkan Peninsula (bordered by Adriatic, Mediterranean and Aegean Seas) • Very mountainous- makes transportation difficult

  6. Mountains • Mountains are like walls because they separate people, goods and ideas- (diffusion!) • Also affect climate • Cold northern air cannot reach Italy, so Italy has a mild climate

  7. Mountains • Alps (France, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and northern Balkan Peninsula) • Cut Italy off from rest of Europe. Tourism: skiing, hiking and outdoor activities • Pyrenees • Border between France and Spain • Restrict movement from France to Spain & Portugal • Tourism Mountain ranges block chilly north winds from reaching the Italian, Iberian and Balkan Peninsulas

  8. Island • Large Islands • Great Britain, Ireland, Iceland, and Greenland • Small Islands • Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, and Crete • All these island depend heavily on trade

  9. Rivers • Europe has a network of rivers • Used to transport goods between coastal harbors and interior/inland region of Europe • Promotes economic growth • Used in the movement of ideas (cultural convergence) • Danube and Rhine served as waterways for centuries

  10. Rivers • Danube • Runs through nine countries east/west and connects Europe to the Black Sea • Rhine • Connects interior of Europe to the North Sea

  11. Plains • Northern European Plain • Very flat • One of the most fertile agricultural regions in the world • Has produced vast quantities of food over the centuries, but allowed groups of invaders to use it as an open route to Europe

  12. Resources • Steel: abundant supply of two resources- coal and iron ore. Needed for an industrialized economy/production of steel. • Located: the Ruhr valley in Germany, the Alsace-Lorraine region of France and parts of the United Kingdom. Allowed them to become very heavily industrialized, but also very polluted

  13. Energy • Peat • Partially decayed plant matter found in bogs. • Found in Ireland and used as fuel

  14. Agricultural Land • 33% of Europe’s land is suitable for agriculture • World average is 11% • Main crops grown are: grains, grapes, olives, and cork • Timber • Is cut from Scandinavia and Alps

  15. Climate and vegetation

  16. Marine West Coast • Most of Europe experiences marine west coast climate • Warm summers and cool winters. Milder climate than most regions at such northern a latitude. • Climate is created by the North Atlantic Drift • Warm ocean currents that come from the tropics • Westerlies: Winds blow warm and moist air over Europe • Region has lots of rain • Most of this region was covered by forests. • Today most of the forest has been cut down to create farmland. • Main crops are: grains, sugar beets, livestock feed, and potatoes

  17. Highland Climate • Alps create a harsh climate in parts of Europe • The higher the elevation the colder the climate • Some parts of the Alps have snow year round

  18. Humid Continental • Inland: Sweden, Finland, eastern parts of Poland, Slovakia and Hungary • Cold, snowy winters and warm/hot summers • Region is great for agriculture • Coniferous Forests: Deforestation has occurred • Region has fertile plains • Grow wheat, rye, barley, potatoes, and sugar beets

  19. Mediterranean Climate • Southern Spain and France, Italy, Greece, and parts of the Balkan Peninsula Areas along the Mediterranean Sea • Summers are hot and dry with clear, sunny skies • Winters are moderate and wet • Reasons for climate • Mountains (Alps) block cold northern winds • Special Winds • Mistral • A cold dry wind from the north that affects France • Sirocco • A south wind that blows from North Africa (Sahara Desert) across the Mediterranean • Brings rain and dust

  20. Mediterranean Climate • Vegetation • Evergreen shrubs and short trees • Crops • Citrus fruits, olives, grapes, and wheat • Tourism • Sunny Mediterranean beaches attract millions of people.

  21. Tundra • Northern Scandinavia has a tundra climate • Land is permafrost (permanently frozen) • Vegetation is limited to mosses and lichen • Harsh winters • Land of Midnight Sun • Winter nights are long (some days the sun never rises) • Summer days are long (some days the sun never sets)