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Chapter 21, Section 4 “ The Progressive Presidents ”

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Chapter 21, Section 4 “ The Progressive Presidents ”. Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal. Square Deal – a nickname for Pres. Roosevelt’s policies that attempted to balance the interests of businesspeople, laborers, and consumers

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teddy roosevelt s square deal
Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal
  • Square Deal – a nickname for Pres. Roosevelt’s policies that attempted to balance the interests of businesspeople, laborers, and consumers
    • 1902 Coal Miners Strike – he threatened to take over the mines unless managers and strikers agreed to arbitration (first time govt. intervened in a strike and didn’t side with business)
    • First president to successfully use the Sherman Anti-trust Act to break up monopolies and trusts
    • TR supported laws regulating businesses
      • 1903 Elkins Act authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission to impose heavy fines on railroads that offered rebates, and upon the shippers that accepted these rebates
      • 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act
the jungle
“The Jungle”
  • Muckrakers helped build support for President Roosevelt’s efforts to regulate big business
  • Upton Sinclair’s novel “The Jungle” published in early 1906 about immigrants working in a meat-packing plant shocked the nation with its description of unhealthy practices there
  • Pure Food and Drug Act – law passed by Congress in 1906 that prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transport of mislabeled or contaminated food and drugs
  • Meat Inspection Act – law passed by Congress in 1906 that authorized the Dept. of Agriculture to inspect and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption
roosevelt conservation
Roosevelt & Conservation
  • T.R. was very worried about the loss of natural resources
  • Preserved more than 200 million acres
    • Wildlife refuges
    • National parks
    • Protected the Grand Canyon in Arizona
presidency of william howard taft
Presidency of William Howard Taft
  • Taft won the presidency in 1908, promising continued Progressive reforms
  • As president, Taft upset Progressives by not aggressively pursuing reforms
  • Taft passed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff of 1909
    • Roosevelt and Progressives furious with Taft
      • Reduced tariffs on some imports, but raised others.
      • Progressives wanted all to be lowered.
election of 1912
Election of 1912
  • Roosevelt decides to run again for President.
  • Taft wins the Republican nomination
  • Teddy decides to form the Bull Moose Party- “he was as strong as a Bull Moose”
  • Taft and Roosevelt split votes. Dem. Wilson Wins
woodrow wilson s reforms
Woodrow Wilson’s Reforms
  • In his inaugural address, focused on the social well-being of working-class Americans.
  • Underwood Tariff Act of 1913, lowered tariffs, and introduced income tax.
  • 16th Amendment – Allows federal government to impose direct taxes on citizens’ income.
  • 1913 Federal Reserve Act – national banking system to regulate the economy.
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