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Communication. The informational framework. Information reduces uncertainty Response determines fitness outcome Cues vs. signals Deceit. Environment. Reception. Production. Based on Bradbury and Vehrencamp (1998). Honest signaling.

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Presentation Transcript
the informational framework
The informational framework
  • Information reduces uncertainty
  • Response determines fitness outcome
  • Cues vs. signals
  • Deceit

Environment

Reception

Production

Based on Bradbury and Vehrencamp (1998)

honest signaling
Honest signaling
  • Senders and receivers often disagree on optimal response
    • Mate choice, contests, etc.
  • Pervasive dishonesty leads to communication breakdown
  • Only honest signals are stable
maintaining honesty
Maintaining honesty
  • Costs
    • Production
    • Maintenance
    • Vulnerability
    • Convention
  • Constraints
    • Index signals
some properties of signals
Some properties of signals
  • Active space
  • Duty cycle
  • Locatability
  • Identification level
  • Modulation potential
  • Costs / constraints
  • Optimal signal design varies by function
signal evolution
Signal evolution
  • Sender precursors
    • Intention movements
      • Ritualization
    • Cues
      • Amplification
    • Principal of antithesis
  • Receiver precursors
    • Sensory drive
    • Sensory exploitation
communication networks
Communication networks
  • Eavesdropping
    • Intraspecific
      • Black-capped chickadees
    • Interspecific
      • Gryllus and Ormea
  • Audience effects
modalities
Modalities
  • Visual
  • Acoustic
  • Chemical
  • Vibrational
  • Electrical
  • Multimodal
sound i
Sound I
  • Sounds are moving pressure waves
  • Amplitude = loudness
  • Frequency ≈ pitch = waves / second
  • Wavelength determines frequency (because speed is ~ constant)

amplitude

pressure

wavelength

time

frequency is # of waves

that pass each sec

sound ii
Sound II
  • Waveform
  • Spectrum
    • Fourier transform
  • Sonogram

Amplitude

Frequency

sound production
Sound production
  • Vibration generator
    • Need for multiplier
    • Stridulatory organs
    • Larynx
    • Syrinx
  • Resonator
    • In anurans
    • In humans

Goller and Larsen 1997 PNAS 94:14787-

sound transmission
Sound transmission
  • Air versus water
  • Degradation
    • Global attenuation
    • Frequency dependent attenuation
    • Reverberation

Forest

Lake

acoustic adaptation
Acoustic adaptation

open

forested

  • Environment constrains signal structure
    • Global attenuation
      • Limits active space
    • Frequency dependent attenuation
      • Constrains use of high frequencies
    • Reverberation
      • Constrains use of rapid changes

flycatchers

wrens

tanagers

sound reception
Sound reception
  • Ears
    • Frequency response
    • Directionality
  • Signal to noise ratio
    • Evolution of urban bird songs
light
Light
  • The electromagnetic spectrum
  • Radiance, reflection and absorption
visual signal production
Visual signal production
  • Pigments
    • Carotenoids
    • Melanins
  • Structural colors
    • Rayleigh scattering
    • Mie scattering
  • Bioluminescence
  • Extended phenotype

http://home.vicnet.net.au/~osch/Bower%20photo1.jpg

visual signal reception
Visual signal reception
  • Contrast with background
  • Available light
olfactory communication
Olfactory communication
  • Properties
    • Slow
    • Non-directional
    • Non-spectral
  • Volatility affects duty cycle, active space
  • Trail following ants
  • Territorial badgers
electrical communication
Electrical communication
  • Only in fish
  • Generate fields
    • Strongly / weakly electric fish
    • Pulse / wave fish
  • Social communication
    • Courtship “songs”
    • Range: 1m
  • Electrolocation
    • Range: 2-5 cm
vibrational communication
Vibrational communication
  • Widespread and ancient
  • Limited range, bandwidth
  • Private
  • Recording
    • Geophones
    • Accelerometers
    • Laser Doppler vibometers
  • Playback
    • Shakers
    • Magnetic setups
echolocation
Echolocation
  • Principals
  • Diversity
    • Birds
    • Cetations
    • Bats
  • In bats