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New Imperialism. What does this image imply about what Imperialism may be?. Imperialism is …. Building an empire by dominating other countries. There are 4 M.A.I.N. reasons for imperialism. M. Markets for Goods. Q: Why do Europeans have so many good to sell?

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New Imperialism

What does this image imply about what Imperialism may be?


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Imperialism is …

Building an empire by dominating other countries


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There are 4

M.A.I.N.

reasons for

imperialism


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M. Markets for Goods

Q: Why do Europeans have so many good to sell?

Ind. Rev. leads to new products


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A. Acquire Resources

Q: Why do Europeans need resources?

Need raw materials to make products (rubber, oil, tin)


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I. Introduce Christianity

  • To the “heathen masses”

  • “The White Man’s Burden”

    Q: Other moments in history ppl used this as a justification??


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N. Nationalism

Q: Why would this make countries want an empire?

Q: How does this parallel German unification?

  • Every country wants to be the best

  • Social Darwinism (what is this?)


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Primary Source Analysis

White Man’s Burden


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White Man’s Burden

  • Outline in your own words each stanza and what it represents


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Q: What is a colony?

Settlement ruled directly by a mother country

EX: Somaliland in E. Africa, FR colony

Q: What is a protectorate?

Country whose policies are guided by a foreign country

NOT directly ruled

EX: Niger River Delta, GB

ColonyProtectorate


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Sphere of Influence

Q: What is a sphere of influence?

When one country has trading rights in another place

(think of street gangs & its turf)

EX: Liberia under sphere of influence by US


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Daily Response

  • What do you believe is “The White Man’s Burden”?

  • What does this say about one of the motivations for Imperialism?

  • To which groups would this ad have appealed?





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Reflection: Social Darwinism & Justifying Imperialism

  • Social Darwinists seized on the theory of evolution, particularly the idea of survival of the fittest, to justify racial attitudes toward non-Western peoples. They believed that the white Europeans were actually superior. It was the duty of the “superior” European nations to spread W. civ. to the “backward” countries & the loss of culture & tradition was natural consequence of social evolution.

    - How would Social Darwinism have been used by the African slave traders or the Spanish

    explorers? Does this theory justify their actions? Is it a valid argument today?


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Reflection

“All the great nations in the fullness of their strength have the desire to set their mark upon barbarian lands & those who fail to participate in this great rivalry will play a pitiable role in time to come” - German historian

“The path to progress is strewn with the wrecks of nations; traces are everywhere to be seen of the [slaughtered remains] of inferior races. Yet these dead people are, in very truth, the stepping stones on which mankind has arisen to the higher intellectual & deeper emotional life of

today.” - British Prof., 1900


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Daily Response

  • In order to administer & control their new colonies, Euro govt.’s needed loyal subjects to move to the colonies to est. Western culture. Citizens were encouraged to move with their families to run the economy & the govt. Many ppl were attracted by the economic opportunities & the lavish lifestyle available to them in the new territories, but didn’t necessarily want to share their lifestyle of political power with the “uncivilized natives.”

    - Would you go? Why? THINK: if your parent was offered a job that made a million dollars a year, but you had to live in a developing country … would you want to go?



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Southeast Asia

  • 1800

    • Only Spain & Dutch had presence

  • 1900

    • Area dominated by the west


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Southeast Asia: Great Britain

  • Singapore (1819)

  • Burma (Myanmar)

    • Watched by FR


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Southeast Asia: France

  • Vietnam (1857): established missionaries

  • Feared GB monopoly & invasionforced Viet. to accept FR protection

  • Established a protectorate (pol. unit that depends upon another St. for protection)

  • All Indochina (1900)

  • Cambodia, Annam, Tonkin, & Laos


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Southeast Asia: U.S.

  • Philippines (1898)

  • Took from SP

  • US involvement in bloody war w/ Filipinos, led by Emilio Aguinaldo

    “Mr. President, the time calls for candor. The Philippines are ours forever. And just beyond the Philippines are China’s unlimited markets. We will not retreat from either. We will not abandon an opportunity in the Orient. We will not renounce our part in the mission of our race, trustee, under God, of the the civilization of the world. And we will move forward to our work … w/ gratitude for a task worthy of our strength, & thanksgiving to the Almighty God that he has marked us as His chosen people, henceforth to lead in the regeneration of the world.”


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More About … Filipinos

  • As a result of anti-Chinese immigration laws in the U.S. in the early 20th century, many sugar, pineapple, & other agricultural planters in Hawaii & CA began to recruit cheap Filipino labor.

  • B/c the overwhelming proportion of Filipino immigrants were male, & b/c of racial prejudice, many states prohibited marriage or any other contact between Asian & Caucasian females. In fact, Filipinos were not even eligible for U.S. citizenship until the late 1940s.

  • Today more immigrants come from the Philippines to the U.S. than any other Asian nation.


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Southeast Asia: Negative Impacts

  • Political

    - Slow to create democratic institutions (whether indirect or direct rule)

  • Economic

    - Colonial Powers: not eager to foster econ. development

  • Chief Goals: (1) gain new source of inexpensive raw materials, (2) keep markets 4 manufactured goods

  • Didn’t want colonists to dev. own industries (stressed exporting goods)

  • Workers: paid poverty-level wages 2  profits

    Q: Have times changed? How? Why?


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Southeast Asia: Direct Vs Indirect Rule

Direct: run by Europeans (when resistance)

Goal: assimilation

EX: FR: Vietnam; GB: Burma

Indirect: govt. run by locals who work w/ Europeans (cooperation)

- Most tried to do this b/c easier access to natural resources

Goal: to develop future leaders

EX: GB: Indirect (later direct); Dutch East Indies (Dutch East India Co.)

Q: Why would an imperialist nation prefer one over thee other?


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Southeast Asia: Resistance

  • Burma & Vietnam

  • From monarchs themselves

  • Peasant revolts

  • Nationalist movements

    • Leaders=intellectuals in cities



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Africa Scramble: Reflect

  • How did you feel during this activity?

  • Why did you compete with the other groups to claim the furniture?

  • Do you think this was a fair way to claim the furniture? What might have been a better way?

  • If unclaimed furniture remains, who should get it?


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Africa

Scramble


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Imperialism in Africa: Great Britain

  • Egypt (Suez Canal … why?)

  • British protectorate

  • Sudan

  • British condominium (country ruled jointly by 2 countries; GB/EG)

  • Nile water = essential for ppl. of Egypt

  • Needed to control Nile

    3. Cape Town: great wealth

Sought indirect rule


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Great Britain (cont.)

Boers: Guerrilla Tactics

4. Boer War (1899-1902)

  • Boers = descendants of Dutch settlers

  • GB seized Cape Colony from Dutch

  • Boers fled N, formed own independent republics (Orange Free State & Transvaal)

  • 1877: Brit govt. of Cape Colony: seized Transvaal

  • Boer revolt GR recognized it as S. African Republic (Boers)

  • Brit miners went there (had monopoly) tensions

  • Boers: guerrilla tactics; GB: burned farms, destroyed food supplies GB WON

  • Agreed: independent Union of S. Africa (please Boers: only whites could vote)


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Imperialism in Africa: France

  • Algeria

  • To stop Algerian pirates attacking FR ships

  • Tunisia & Morocco

  • Wanted African empire

  • From Dakar (W) to Somaliland (E)

  • Established direct rule

  • Goal: assimilate Africans into FR culture



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Imperialism in China: Background

  • Decline of Manchu Dynasty

    • Corruption

    • Peasant unrest

    • Incompetence at court

    • Rapid growth in population

      Q: How would this lead to its decline? … food shortage


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Imperialism: China

  • The Opium War (1839)

  • Opium is a habit-forming illegal drug (effects: similar to heroine & morphine)

    1. Guess: How do you think opium led to a war in China?

Opium Poppy


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  • (Background)

  • CH imported tea, silk, porcelain sent Indian cotton to CH to pay

  • Cotton not enough paid w/ silver

  • To improve trade balance: shipped opium to CH market

    Q: Opium is highly addictive: any parallels to industries in US?

  • D for opium   silver back to GB

  • Opium War

  • CH wanted to end opium trafficking

  • GB refused  CH blockaded ports  GB responded w/ force

  • GB crushed CH


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  • Treaty of Nanjing (1842)

  • CH opened 5 coastal ports to Brit trade

  • Ltd taxes on Brit goods

  • Paid costs of war

  • Gave GB island of Hong Kong


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Imperialism: China

B. Rebellions in China

  • Boxer Rebellion

    • Get the Christians out of China

      • Forcing their beliefs on the Chines

    • Starts out in the countryside

      • Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists

        • “Bullet Proof”

      • Marines Save Americans

      • Empress Dowager secretly supports the rebelion

  • Taiping Rebellion

    • Means “great peace”

    • Massive peasant army

      • Wanted equal distribution of wealth

      • Eventually fails because of inner squabbles


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Drug Trade: Comparing US & China

  • There’s an interesting parallel between the drug trade in China in the 19th century & in the US today.

  • The seeds of our drug trade seem to have been sown by the British.

  • In both cases, the exporters (Britain then, Columbia & others today) claim the problem is with the users - if they don’t want drugs, they don’t buy them.

  • The Chinese response was also very much like ours - impose penalties for use, arrest dealers, & seize supplies.

  • **Is there a lesson for the US in the experience of China?

  • **Does drug use signal a decline of society?

  • Should we focus on supply or demand? Why? How?


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