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New Imperialism . The Race For Africa. What is Imperialism?. Broadly, the extension of rule or influence by one government, nation, or society over another. . Traditional Purposes of Colonization. Economic Purposes Trade Routes (Age of Exploration) Mercantilism Triangular Trade

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new imperialism

New Imperialism

The Race For Africa

what is imperialism
What is Imperialism?

Broadly, the extension of rule or influence by one government, nation, or society over another.

traditional purposes of colonization
Traditional Purposes of Colonization
  • Economic Purposes
    • Trade Routes (Age of Exploration)
    • Mercantilism
      • Triangular Trade
  • Religious Purposes
    • Missionaries
  • Political Purposes
    • Expansion of Empire (Land)
  • Distinguishing Two Types of Colonies
    • Tropical Dependencies
    • Settlement Colonies
motivation for imperialism in africa
Motivation For Imperialism in Africa
  • Motivation Not Economically Focused
    • “A protectorate at the mouth of the Niger would be an unwelcome burden, but a French protectorate would be fatal” - British Diplomat
  • David Livingstone’s 3 C’s
    • Christianity
    • Civilization
    • Commerce
  • Biggest Driving Force
    • European Rivalries
nation building in europe european rivalries
Nation Building in Europe: European Rivalries
  • The Congress of Vienna (1814)
    • Attempt to balance power in Eur. After

fall of Napoleon (Fr.)

  • “The Big Five” European Powers
    • Austria, Prussia, G.B., Russia, France
  • Outcome
    • Restored power of monarchs in Europe
    • Redrew map of Europe to ensure power balance
    • Ignored ethnicity and language when redrawing borders
  • Rising Nationalism
    • Liberal Revolutions, 1848
    • Unification of Germany and Italy
      • Otto Von Bismarck
    • Franco-Prussian War
the partitioning of africa the berlin conference
The Partitioning of Africa: The Berlin Conference
  • 1884-1885
  • Organizer
    • Otto von Bismarck (Ger)
  • Main Participants
    • France, Germany, G.B.,

Portugal (No Afr. Reps)

  • Purpose
    • Division of the African

continent among European

imperialist powers

  • Major Outcomes
    • Remapped the continent without consideration of established indigenous cultural and linguistic borders
    • Created a legacy of interethnic strife and political fragmentation (still exists)
scientific justification for imperialism
“Scientific” Justification for Imperialism
  • Charles Darwin: The Origin of Species
    • Evolution & Natural Selection
  • Herbert Spencer
    • “Survival of the Fittest”
  • Pseudoscientific Racism
    • Charles Galton
    • Eugenics
      • Anthropometry
  • Connected to Moral Grounds
    • Exporting “Civilization”
the white man s burden
The White Man’s Burden

Take up the White Man's burden--Have done with childish days--The lightly proferred laurel,The easy, ungrudged praise.Comes now, to search your manhoodThrough all the thankless yearsCold, edged with dear-bought wisdom,The judgment of your peers!

Take up the White Man's burden--No tawdry rule of kings,But toil of serf and sweeper--The tale of common things.The ports ye shall not enter,The roads ye shall not tread,Go mark them with your living,And mark them with your dead.Take up the White Man's burden--And reap his old reward:The blame of those ye better,The hate of those ye guard--The cry of hosts ye humour(Ah, slowly!) toward the light:--"Why brought he us from bondage,Our loved Egyptian night?"Take up the White Man's burden--Ye dare not stoop to less--Nor call too loud on FreedomTo cloke your weariness;By all ye cry or whisper,By all ye leave or do,The silent, sullen peoplesShall weigh your gods and you.

- Rudyard Kipling

1899

Take up the White Man's burden--Send forth the best ye breed--Go bind your sons to exileTo serve your captives' need;To wait in heavy harness,On fluttered folk and wild--Your new-caught, sullen peoples,Half-devil and half-child.Take up the White Man's burden--In patience to abide,To veil the threat of terrorAnd check the show of pride;By open speech and simple,An hundred times made plainTo seek another's profit,And work another's gain.Take up the White Man's burden--The savage wars of peace--Fill full the mouth of FamineAnd bid the sickness cease;And when your goal is nearestThe end for others sought,Watch sloth and heathen FollyBring all your hopes to nought.

the black man s burden
The Black Man’s Burden

- Edmund Morel (British Journalist)

  • It is with the peoples of Africa, then, that our inquiry is concerned. It is they who carry the "Black man's" burden. They have not withered away before the white man's occupation. Indeed, if the scope of this volume permitted, there would be no difficulty in showing that Africa has ultimately absorbed within itself every Caucasian and, for that matter, every Semitic invader too. In hewing out for himself a fixed abode in Africa, the white man has massacred the African in heaps. The African has survived, and it is well for the white settlers that he has.
  • In the process of imposing his political dominion over the African, the white man has carved broad and bloody avenues from one end of Africa to the other. The African has resisted, and persisted.
  • For three centuries the white man seized and enslaved millions of Africans and transported them, with every circumstance of ferocious cruelty, across the seas. Still the African survived and, in his land of exile, multiplied exceedingly.
  • But what the partial occupation of his soil by the white man has failed to do; what the mapping out of European political "spheres of influence" has failed to do; what the maxim and the rifle, the slave gang, labour in the bowels of the earth and the lash, have failed to do; what imported measles, smallpox and syphilis have failed to do; what even the oversea slave trade failed to do, the power of modern capitalistic exploitation, assisted by modern engines of destruction, may yet succeed in accomplishing.
  • For from the evils of the latter, scientifically applied and enforced, there is no escape for the African. Its destructive effects are not spasmodic: they are permanent. In its permanence resides its fatal consequences. It kills not the body merely, but the soul. It breaks the spirit. It attacks the African at every turn, from every point of vantage. It wrecks his polity, uproots him from the land, invades his family life, destroys his natural pursuits and occupations, claims his whole time, enslaves him in his own home…
  • Nor is violent physical opposition to abuse and injustice henceforth possible for the African in any part of Africa. His chances of effective resistance have been steadily dwindling with the increasing perfectibility in the killing power of modern armament…
  • Thus the African is really helpless against the material gods of the white man, as embodied in the trinity of imperialism, capitalistic-exploitation, and militarism…
new imperialism religious goals
New Imperialism: Religious Goals

The Great Commission:

“... Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you…”

  • Missionaries often believed they were helping save their converts
  • Helped provide politicians justification for imperialism
  • Traditional African religious beliefs often destroyed
  • Missionaries often helped build schools and hospitals
imperialism commercial goals
Imperialism: Commercial Goals
  • Though not main driving force, economic motivation for imperialism existed
  • Raw materials were extracted in Mercantilist relationship with “Mother Countries”
    • Rubber
    • Minerals
    • Gold
    • Palm Oil
    • Cash Crops
  • Forced labor often used in attempts to make colonies self-sufficient
  • Europeans changed traditional land use/ownership systems
  • Native peoples rarely benefited directly
imperialism in africa ultimate outcomes
Imperialism in Africa: Ultimate Outcomes

Negative Outcomes

  • New political boundaries caused ongoing tribal clashes.
  • Erosion of traditional African values
  • Destruction existing social structures.
  • Native peoples forced to work long hard hours for subsistence pay.
  • Racial Prejudice that
  • persists today

Positive Outcomes

  • Roads & railroads
  • Schools & hospitals
  • Improved sanitation
  • Improved farming methods.
  • Medicines and better nutrition increased the life span of some Africans
  • Selected minority received improved education and greater economic opportunities.