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India - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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India. Indo-Europeans. A group of nomadic people who came from the steppes. They came from the Caucasus. They herded sheep, cattle, and goats. Tamed horses, and rode into battle in light, two wheeled chariots. Steppes. Dry, grasslands that stretched to the north of the Caucasus. Migration.

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A group of nomadic people who came from the steppes. They came from the Caucasus. They herded sheep, cattle, and goats. Tamed horses, and rode into battle in light, two wheeled chariots.
The southwest Asian peninsula, now occupied by the Asian part of Turkey, and it is also called Asia Minor.
The four collections of sacred writings produced by the Aryans during a early stage of their settlement in India.
One of the four classes of people in the social system of the Aryans – priest, warriors, peasants or traders, and non – Aryan laborers or craftsmen.
A great Indian epic poem, reflecting the struggles of the Aryans as they moved south into India.
In Hinduism and Buddhism, the process by which a soul is reborn continuously until it achieves perfect understanding.
In Hinduism and Buddhism, the totality of the good and bad deeds performed by a person, which is believed to determine his or her fate after rebirth.
A religion founded in India in the Sixty century. Whose members believe that everything in the universe has a soul and therefore should not be harmed.



He was born into a noble family that lived in Nepal. The baby showed the marks of a great man. If he stayed home, he would be a world ruler. If he was to leave, he would become a universal spiritual world ruler. His father had separated him from the rest of the world. He had gotten married and had a son.
In Buddhism, a state of perfect wisdom in which one understands the basic truths of the universe.
Buddhism, focusing on the strict spiritual discipline originally advocated by the Buddha.
A system of ancient caravan routes across Central Asia, along which traders carried silk and other trade goods.
1857, rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers, against the British in India. Because of the Amritsar Massacre.
The British colony of India – it is called this because of its importance in the British Empire, both as a supplier of raw materials and as market for British trade goods.
Laws passed, that allowed the British government in India to jail anti-British protestors without trial for as long as two years.
The killing of 400 Indians gathered at Amritsar to protest the Rowlatt Acts, they were killed by the British.
Born in India, went to school in Britain, and became a lawyer. He went to S. Africa to help the Apartheid. Came Back to India to fight the British rule and led the Indian National Congress. He also led the peaceful Salt March.
A peaceful protest against the Salt Acts in India in which Mohandas Gandhi led his followers on a 240 mile walk to the sea, where they made their own salt from evaporated sea water.
Successfully led the Turkish nationalist in fighting back the Greeks and their British backers. After wining they overthrew the last Ottoman sultan.
A organization formed to protect the interests of India’s Muslims, which later proposed that India be divided into separate Muslim and Hindu nations.
A division into parts, like the division of the British colony of India into the two nations of India and Pakistan.
A group led by Ghandi & Nehru to win independence from Britain, that concentrated on the specific concerns for Indians.
A small, tear drop island nation just off the southern coast of India. It is formally know as Ceylon. Sri Lanka won its independence in 1848. Two main ethnic groups dominate the nation. Sinhalese, who are Buddhist, and the Tamils, who are Hindu people of southern India and northern Sri Lanka.
They moved to the Muslim capitol to Damascus, away from Mecca. Although it was too far away from their lands, they had abandoned the simple lives of he Caliphs and surrounded themselves with wealth. They had a ceremony similar to the non-Muslim rulers. This caused a division in the Muslim Community.
The Branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad.
The branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad.
A member of the Muslim Dynasty that traced its ancestry to Muhammad’s daughter Fatima and that built an empire in N. Africa, Arabia, and Syria.
A Turkish group who migrated into the Abbasid Empire in the tenth century and created their own empire in the eleventh century.
A mutual promise or agreement – especially an agreement with God and the Hebrew people as recorded in bible.
A payment make by a weaker power to a stronger power to obtain an assurance of peace and security.
The dispersal of the Jews from their homeland in Palestine - especially during the period of more than 1,800 years that followed the Roman’s destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem.
One of the expeditions in which medieval Christian warriors sought to recover control of the Holy Land from the Muslims.
“overlord” or “one with power”: the title for Ottoman rulers during the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
In the Ottoman Empire, the policy of taking boys from conquered Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiers.
A foreign policy based on a consideration o the strategic locations or products of other lands.
A conflict, lasting from 1853 to 1856, in which the Ottoman Empire, with the aid of Britain and France, Halted Russian expansion in the region of the Black Sea.
The Palestine Liberation Organization – an organization dedicated to the establishment of an independent state for Palestinians in the Middle East.
The first signed agreement between Israel and an Arab country, in which Egyptian president, Anwar Sadat, recognized Israel as a legitimate state and Israeli prime minister, Menachem Begin, agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
Palestinian campaign of civil disobedience against Israeli occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, which continued into the 1990’s.
An agreement in 1993 in which the prime minister, Rabin, granted Palestinian self-rule in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.
A conservative Islamic group that took control of Afghanistan after the Soviet Union withdrew its troops.
The use of force or threats to frighten people or governments to change their policies.

Department of

Homeland Security

The cultural elements – sports, music, movies, clothing, etc. That reflects a group’s common background and changing interests.
An economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit.
An economic system in which all means of production are owned by the people, private property does not exist, and all goods and services are shared equally.
During the Cold War, boundary separating the Communists nations of Eastern Europe from the mostly democratic nations of Western Europe.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization – a defensive military alliance formed in 1949 by ten Western European nations, the United States, and Canada.
The Commonwealth of Independent States – association of former Soviet republics that was formed after the break up of the Soviet Union.
The state of diplomatic hostility between the United States and the Soviet Union in the decades following WW II.
A U.S. foreign policy adopted by president Harry Truman, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of Communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances.
Announced By president Harry Truman, a U.S. policy of giving economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents.
An adoption of the social, political, and economic institutions of Western European or American countries.
One of the local representative councils formed in Russia after the down fall of czar Nicholas II.
A political party practicing the ideas of Karl Marx and V.I. Lenin; originally the Russian Bolshevik Party.
A campaign of terror in the Soviet Union, in which Joseph Stalin sought to eliminate all Communist Party members and other citizens who threatened his power.
An economic program implemented in Russia, involving an abrupt shift from a command economy to a free – market economy.
One of the animal bones or tortoise shells used by ancient Chinese priest to communicate with the gods.
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land.
A philosophy based on the Chinese thinker Laozi, who taught that people should be guided by a universal force called the Dao.
A Chinese political philosophy based on the idea that a highly efficient and powerful government is the key to social order.
A government in which power is concentrated in a central authority to which local governments are subject.
The administrative departments of a government – especially those in which employees are hired based on their scores on examinations.
Blocks of metal or wood, each bearing a single character, that can be arranged to make up a page for printing.
A policy , proposed by the United States, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
A national protest in China in which people demonstrated against the Treaty of Versailles and foreign interference.
The idea that if one nations falls under Communist control, nearby nations will also fall under Communist control.
A set of goals adopted by the Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping, involving progress in agriculture, industry, defense, science, and technology.
A Japanese form of poetry, consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables.
An agreement between the United States and Japan, which opened two Japanese ports to the U.S. ships and allowed the United States to form an embassy in Japan.
A conflict between Russia and Japan, sparked by the two countries’ efforts to dominate Manchuria and Korea.
A 1942, sea and air battle of WW II, in which American forces defeated the Japanese forces in the central Pacific.
A battle of WW II, in which German forces were defeated in their attempt to capture the city of Stalingrad in the Soviet Union.
A battle of WW II, in which allied troops drove Japanese forces from the Pacific island of Guadalcanal.
During WW II, Japanese suicide pilots trained to sink Allied ships by crashing bomb – filled planes into the ships.
A series of court proceedings held in Nuremberg, Germany, after WW II, in which Nazi leaders were tried for aggression, violations of the rules of war, and crimes against humanity.
A reduction in a country’s ability to wage war, achieved by disbanding its armed forces and prohibiting it from acquiring weapons.



A green or black volcanic glass found in the valley of Mexico and used to make razor sharp weapons.
He had planned to sail around south Africa and then the east. He sailed west across the Atlantic in search of alternate trade routes to Asia, but he had never reached Asia. Columbus landed in the Caribbean.
The American continents are not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.
A writer who had been exiled from Cuba by the Spanish, returned to launch a second war for independence. He was killed early in the fighting, but the Cubans battled on.
U.S. joined the Cuban war for independence, lasted four months. U.S. launched their first attack on the Philippine Islands, not on Cuba.
Played a leading role in Mexico’s fight for independence from, Spain. Then in 1833, he became Mexico’s president.
A liberal reformer, strongly influenced the politics of Mexico. Worked to serve his country. Was a poor Zapotec Indian, who was orphaned at the age of three.
Juarez worked to start a liberal reform movement. Redistribution of land, separation of church and state, and increased educational opportunities for the poor.
Indian from Oaxaca. He promised land, power, and political favors to anyone who supported him. Also, he ordered people to be beaten or put in jail for not supporting him. He used dictator powers. He had railroads expanded, banks built, currency stabilized, and foreign investment grew.
Educated in the U.S. and in France. Diaz arrested him, because he wanted to run for president. He had called for an armed revolution against Diaz. The Mexican Revolution began slowly.
Raised a revolutionary army. He came from a poor family. He was determined to see that the land was returned to peasants and small farmers.