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NTUT Academic Writing: Week 14. “ Results ”. **Three Main Elements. 1. Location of Results: a statement that locates the figure(s) where the results can be found. 2. The Most Important Findings: statements that present the most important findings.

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three main elements
**Three Main Elements
  • 1. Location of Results: a statement

that locates the figure(s) where

the results can be found.

  • 2. The Most Important Findings:

statements that present the most

important findings.

  • 3. Comments: statements that

comment on the results.

commenting on results two patterns
Commenting on Results: Two Patterns

**There are two possible ways to order your comment statements. You may put a short comment (one or two sentences) after each significant result you mention, or you may leave your comments until all the results have been mentioned.

Example: two ways of ordering your comments

The alternating pattern is best if you have many individual results with specific comments about each result. The sequential pattern is used when there are several results to which one general comment applies. (Your professors or editors may ask you to put all comments in a separate section called “Discussion.”)

functions of comments
Functions of Comments

Some of the most common functions are listed in the following box.

choosing verb tense for results
Choosing Verb Tense For Results

In using the three-step format to write your results section, you should observe the following verb tense conventions. In Element 1, use the present tense to locate your data in a figure.

**The above statements can be written in either the active or passive voice.


When you report your findings (Element 2), use the past tense.

**In some fields such as engineering and economics, authors may present their findings in the present tense.


When commenting on the findings (Element 3), it is conventional to use the present tense or modal auxiliaries.


In Element 3, you may also use tentative verbs in the present tense instead of modal auxiliaries to generalize from results.

element 2 presenting different types of findings
Element 2: Presenting Different Types of Findings

There are THREE different types of findings that you may need to report, depending on the kind of study you do. Specific words and expressions are used in writing about each type.

(I). In some studies the findings involve a comparison among groups, often one or more experimental groups with a control group. In these cases Element 2 statements are often written using comparative or superlative expressions.


(II). In other studies the findings show the tendency of a variable to fluctuate over time. To report these kinds of results, use expressions of variation or special verbs of variation in your Element 2 statements.


(III). Findings of a third type show the relationship of one variable with another, or relationships among variables. When you report these kinds of results, it is common to use verbs of correlation or association.


The following article describes the effect of weightlessness on the astronauts’ eye movements during sleep. Fill in each blank space with any appropriate verb or auxiliary.