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NTUT Academic Writing (Week 6): Coherence, Punctuation, and Transition Signals. Four Ways to Achieve Coherence:. Coherence: how sentences hold together; movements of sentences. 1. Repeating key nouns; 2. Using pronouns; 3. Using transition signals;

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four ways to achieve coherence
Four Ways to Achieve Coherence:

Coherence: how sentences hold together;

movements of sentences.

1. Repeating key nouns;

2. Using pronouns;

3. Using transition signals;

4. Applying logical order.

repetition of key nouns
Repetition of Key Nouns:

Paragraph with coherence: (how many key nouns, pronouns are used?)

use of consistent pronouns
Use of Consistent Pronouns:

Avoid change of person or change of number.

(why is it inconsistent?)

transition signals which paragraph is easier to understand
Transition Signals: which paragraph is easier to understand?

(which paragraph is easy to understand? Why?)

three types of transition signals
three Types of Transition Signals:

A. Sentence Connectors: transition phrases & conjunctive adverbs.

Transition phrases:

1. Appear in the beginning, middle, or end of

a sentence.

2. A coma is needed.

Ex. For example, the Baltic Sea (, for example) in Northern Europe is only one-fourth as saline as the Rea Sea in the Middle East (, for example).

conjunctive adverbs
Conjunctive Adverbs:

Often used with a semicolon and a comma to join two independent clauses.

Ex. In warm climate zones, water evaporates rapidly; therefore, its net profit declined.

Many societies in the world are matriarchal; that is, the mother is head of the family.

Some English words do not have exact equivalents in other languages; for example, there is no German word for the adjective fair, as in fair play.

b clause connectors
B. Clause Connectors:

1. Coordinating conjunctions: used with a comma to join two independent clauses and to form a compound sentence.

Ex. In a matriarchy, the mother is the head of the family, and all of the children belong to her clan.

In warm climate zones, water evaporates, so the concentration of salt is greater.

yet and but
Yet and But

Both signal that an opposite idea is coming.

Yet: preferred when the 2nd clause is an unexpected or surprising contrast to the 1st clause.

Ex. Thomas Edison dropped out of school at age 12, yet he became a famous inventor.

But: preferred when the 2 clauses are direct oppositions.

Ex. I want to study art, but my parents want me to become an engineer.

Yet is similar in meaning to nevertheless; but is similar to however.

2 subordinating conjunctions
2. Subordinating Conjunctions:

Used to introduce a dependent clause, which is joined to form a complex sentence.

Position: use a comma if the DC comes before the IC; do not use a comma if the DC comes after the IC.

Ex. Although the company’s sale increased last year, its net profit declined.

The company’s net profit declined last year although its sales increased.

c others
C. Others:

Indicating transition: additional (adj.); despite (prep.); examples (n.).

Ex. An additional reason for the firm’s bankruptcy was the lack of competent management.

Examples of vocabulary differences between British and American English include petrol/gasoline, windscreen/windshield, and lorry/truck.

Despite increased sales, the company’s profit declined last quarter.

choose the right transition signal and add punctuation marks
Choose the Right Transition Signal and Add Punctuation Marks

1. In physics, the weight of an object is the gravitational force with which the earth attracts it _________ if a man weighs 150 pounds, this means that the earth pulls him down with a force of 150 pounds. (moreover, therefore, for example)

2. The farther away from the earth a person is, the less gravitational force of the earth ________ a man weighs less when he is 50,000 miles from the earth than when he is only 5,000 miles away. (in conclusion, therefore, however)

3. A tsunami is a tidal wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor. The waves are very long and low in open water, but when they get close to land, they encounter friction because the water is shallow _________ the waves increase in height and can cause considerable damage when they finally reach land. (on the other hand, as a result, for example)

fill in the blanks
Fill in the blanks

For instance moreover furthermore in conclusion however but for example such as