NTUT Academic Writing (IV) “Adverbial Clauses”
※Definitions and Purposes: • A dependent clause introduced by an adverbial subordinator. • Used to modify the verb of the independent clause and to indicate time, place, reason, and so forth. It is also used to show contrast.
※ Simple punctuation: • adverbial clauses are placed before and after an independent clause. • Ex. Because scientists are interested in the planets, they send spacecraft to orbit them. • Scientists send spacecraft to orbit the planets so that humans can learn more about the universe.
※Time Clauses: • (when, while, as soon as, after, before, until, etc.) • Ex. Everyone should know what to do. An earthquake strikes. • Everyone should know what to do when an earthquake strikes.
※Test Yourselves: • 1. If you are inside, move away from windows, and get under a desk or table, or stand in a doorway. You feel the floor begin to shake. • 2. Try to stay calm. The earthquake is happening. • 3. Don’t move. The floor stops shaking. • 4. You are sure the earthquake is over. You may begin to move around. • 5. You have checked carefully for fallen power lines. You may go outside.
※Place Clauses: • (wherever, where, everywhere, anywhere, etc.) • Ex. People prefer to shop. Credit cards are accepted. • People prefer to shop where credit cards are accepted.
※Test Yourselves: • 1. Consumers have a tendency to buy more. Credit cards are accepted for payment of merchandise. • 2. You cannot use credit card. You shop. • 3. There are a few places of business. A credit card is not accepted. • 4. They are accepted. Travelers can only use credit cards in foreign countries.
※Manner (how), Distance (how far), and Frequency Clauses (how often): • Ex. The demonstrators left as the police had ordered. (manner) • The students completed the experiment as quickly as they could. (manner) • Pat jogs on the beach as far as she can. (distance) • Kathleen spoke as if (as though) she were an authority on the subject. (manner)
※ Test Yourselves: • 1. The public must conserve energy _______ the president has requested. (manner). • 2. Many Americans want to move _______ they can from polluted cities. (distance) • 3. We should not consume our natural resources _____ we have in the past. (manner: • wastefully) • 4. Citizens should make a strong effort to conserve all natural resources ___ the • government has advised. • 5. No nation in the would can afford to act ___ pollution were not its problem. • (manner: as if/as though) • 6. The EPA must remind people ______ they can about the dangers of pollution. • (frequency)
※Reason Clauses: (because, since, as) • Ex. Europeans are in some ways better environmentalists than North Americans because they are more used to conserving energy. • Since many Europeans live, work, and shop in the same locale, they are quite accustomed to riding bicycles, trains, and streetcars to get around. • As the price of gasoline has always been quite high in Europe, if a European owns an automobile, it is likely to be a high-mileage model that uses diesel fuel.
※Test Yourselves: • 1. Europeans experienced hardship and deprivation during and after World War II. They are used to conserving. • 2. European nations are trying to reduce the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere causes global warming. • 3. Coal pollutes the air and gives off a lot of carbon dioxide. Most European nations have switched to natural gas to produce electricity. • 4. In the United States, in contrast, 56% of the nation’s electricity is generated by burning coal. Coal is cheap and plentiful.
※Result Clauses: • (so that, such + noun that, so much/many + noun phrase that, so little/few + noun phrase that) • Ex. New textbooks are so expensive that many students buy used ones. • There is always so much noise in the dormitory that I can’t study there. • There were so many students waiting in line to register for classes that I decided to come back later.
※Test Yourselves: • 1. The Ancient Peru exhibit was popular. It was held for over two weeks. (so that) • 2. The artifacts were of historic value. Anthropologists from several universities came to study them. (such that) • 3. There were many exhibits. We couldn’t see all of them. (so many that)
※Purpose Clauses: • (so that, in order that [formal] + modals: can/could, will/would, etc.) • Ex. Farmers use chemical pesticides so that they can grow bigger harvests. • Farmers also spray their fields in order that consumers might enjoy unblemished fruitsand vegetables.
※Test Yourselves: • 1. Chemicals are used in many food products. They will stay fresh longer. • 2. They can produce organic crops. Some farmers use only natural pest control methods. • 3. They might avoid potential health risks. They prefer eating organic food.
※Concession (unexpected result) clauses: • (although, even though, though) • Ex. Although I studied all night, I failed the test. • I failed the test although I studied all night.
※Test Yourselves: • 1. She’s a famous star. She’s unhappy. (even though: for emphasis) • 2. Beethoven wrote some of the Western world’s greatest music. He became totally deaf in mid-life. • 3. Abraham Lincoln became one of the great presidents of the United States. He came from humble origins.
※Contrast (direct opposites) Clauses: • (while, whereas [formal]; a comma is needed in both cases) • Ex. San Francisco is very cool during the summer, whereas San Juan is extremely hot. • While San Juan is extremely hot during the summer, San Francisco is very cool.
※Test Yourselves: • 1. The West Coast suffered a severe drought. The East Coast had a rainfall. • 2. Smokers claim the right to smoke in public places. Nonsmokers claim the right to clear air. • 3. College graduates with degrees in technology are in demand. Graduates with degrees in music are not.
※More Writing Practice: • Ex. I reviewed my class notes before I took the final exam. (time) • 1. I bought all of my textbooks ________________. (time) • 2. Tom rode on the subway ________________. (distance) • 3. _____________ he company hired me. (reason) • 4. I study in the library ____________. (purpose) • 5. Tom wanted to become a doctor ____________. (concession) • 6. Water shortage is a thorny issue _________. (place) • 7. City living is stressful _____________. (contrast/direction opposition)
Primary Text: • Longman, Wesley Addison. Writing Academic English. 3rd Ed. NY: Pearson Education, 1999.