Metals, Nonmetals and Metalloids. Notice the difference between the appearance of the metals and nonmetals. Click here for a better view of each of the elements. Physical properties of METALS. Metals are SOLIDS . (except mercury) Metals are HARD .
(except Lithium, Potassium, Sodium)
Metals haveshiny luster. (or metallic luster)
LUSTER – the way an object’s surface reflects light
METALS are the best conductors of heat.
This is because the electrons in metals move more freely than in non-metals, allowing the heat energy to travel across the metal.
For example, when the spoon touches the hot drink, the heat from the drink excites the electrons in the metal, and the electrons transfer the energy from one electron to another, carrying the heat all the way up the spoon quickly.
Best conductors: silver and copper
Copper, silver, and gold are good electrical conductors. In a conductor, electric current can flow freely. Since metals have free electrons, they can carry a charge easily.
Metals are malleable.
Malleable or Malleability - metals ability to be shaped or formed as by hammering or pressure; can be beaten into thin sheets
Aluminum is malleable.
Metals are ductile.
Ductility or ductile – can be drawn into a wire
Non metals may be solids, liquids or gases.
Solids – Carbon, Sulfur, Phosphorus
Liquid – Bromine
Gases – Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen
Nonmetals have a dull luster.
(They are not shiny!)
Nonmetals are insulators.
They do not conduct electricity or heat well.
The atoms in nonmetals do not have loose electrons. Therefore, when electricity, or something hot touches a non-metal, the energy does not move quickly through the material.
What would you rather stir a hot pot with—a wooden spoon or a metal spoon?
Nonmetals aresoft(except for diamonds and brittle.
Ever break the point of your pencil? That’s because it’s made of graphite, a substance made up completely of Carbon—a brittle nonmetal.
Carbon atoms in graphite
However diamonds, the hardest material of all, are made of the same element: Carbon. Look at how the carbon atoms are arranged in diamonds—why do you think diamonds are harder than graphite?
The elements contained in the classification of Metalloids:
Some metals like gold, silver, and platinum are found as pure substances in the earth’s crust because they are least reactive.
Most metals are reactive and are found as oxides (react with oxygen), carbonates (react with carbon), sulfides (react with sulfur).
Minerals :are elements or compounds which occur naturally inside the earth’s crust.
Ore :is a mineral from which metals can be extracted profitably.