Election of 1960 • JFK – D- Catholic – 49.7% • RMN – R – VP-49.5% • Both promise active leadership and a great future. • Debates nationally televised. • Religion and Race issues.
John F Kennedy • Veteran of World War II • Wealthy Family • Senator from Massachusetts • Hot wife • Brother killed in war. • Brother became Attorney General
Richard Milhous Nixon • Born in California, elected from New York. • Vice President under Eisenhower. • Young star of the Republican Party.
Kennedy Administration • 1960-1963 • Domestic = New Frontier • Foreign = Flexible Response • Very few accomplishments • Very popular, magnetic personality. • Lacked a mandate.
New Frontier • Improve the economy. • Assist the poor. • Speed up the space program. • Improve Civil Rights.
Flexible Response • Dealing with unconventional methods of warfare. • Prepared to fight limited wars.
Flexible Response • Dealing with the attractiveness of Communism: • Alliance for Progress • Peace Corp.
Bay of Pigs Invasion • April 17, 1961 • Invasion of Cuba by anti- Castro forces. (Cubans) • Planning began under Eisenhower. • JFK hoped to trigger a revolution.
Bay of Pigs Invasion • Invasion failed after two days. • Kennedy took the blame publicly. (CIA) • Cold War heats up. Leads to Cuban Missile Crisis.
Berlin Wall • Built in 1961 to stop the flow of people from East Berlin to West Berlin. • Torn down 1989. • Berlin was a hot spot throughout the Cold War.
Berlin Wall • JFK travels to Berlin and pledges to support the city and defend it. • Greatly increases the size of the US military and calls reserves into active duty.
Berlin Wall • JFK shows strength in dealing with the Soviets with regards to Berlin. • Helps restore his image after the Bay of Pigs.
Cuban Missile Crisis • October 1962 • Spy planes photograph nuclear missiles being built in Cuba. • Balance of power in the arms race is greatly upset.
Cuban Missile Crisis • USSR has committed itself to supporting Castro, and the Bay of Pigs Invasion has them worried about another invasion. • US military is fully mobilized.
Cuban Missile Crisis • Kennedy decides on a naval “quarantine”. • Soviet Ships approaching Cuba will be stopped and searched. • Missiles must be removed.
Cuban Missile Crisis • Nikita Khrushchev: Soviet leader wants to defend Cuba and not start WWIII. • Agrees to withdraw missiles and recalls ships.
Cuban Missile Crisis • Close to nuclear war. • JFK’s biggest accomplishment.
JFK Assassination • November 22, 1963 • Dealey Plaza – Dallas, Texas • Gov. John Connally also shot. • Assassination was caught on video by Abraham Zapruder.
JFK Assassination • Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested less than an hour later for killing the President and a police officer. • Jack Ruby shot Lee Harvey Oswald on live TV the next day .
JFK Assassination • Warren Commission charged with looking into the assassination in lieu of a trial. • Earl Warren was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. • Gerald Ford on the Commission.
JFK Assassination • Problems of Evidence: • Single Bullet Theory • Magic Bullet
JFK Assassination • Desire to restore public confidence. • Wanted to avoid a conspiracy. • Cover – up.
JFK Assassination • Impact: • The Federal Government is greatly mistrusted from this point.
MLK Assassination • April 4, 1968 • Memphis, Tennessee • James Earl Ray. • Civil Rights Movement loses its strongest leader.
RFK Assassination • June 5, 1968 • Los Angeles, California • Shot by Sirhan Sirhan • RFK had just won the Primary in California.