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Election of 1960. Eisenhower was not able to transfer his popularity to another Republican His VP, Richard Nixon, had gained a reputation as a statesman in his diplomatic travels to Europe and South America.

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Election of 1960

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    1. Election of 1960 • Eisenhower was not able to transfer his popularity to another Republican • His VP, Richard Nixon, had gained a reputation as a statesman in his diplomatic travels to Europe and South America

    2. He was seen standing up to Nikita Khrushchev in the “kitchen debate” in a visit to Moscow The Republican candidate was known to be a though and seasoned campaigner Election of 1960

    3. Many Democrats wanted to nominate Adlai Stevenson again or Lyndon B. Johnson In the primaries, John F. Kennedy defeated his rivals Election of 1960

    4. To balance the ticket, MA senator Kennedy chose L.B. Johnson from TX - a choice crucial to getting the southern states Election of 1960

    5. Four televised debates took place, the first in American politics Kennedy used make-up and appeared vigorous and comfortable Nixon looked sinister, pale and tense The Debates

    6. The debates were broadcasted coast to coast and watched by 60-70 million viewers The Debates

    7. Orval Faubus, States’ Rights Party, was kept out of the debates The Debates

    8. Kennedy attacked the Eisenhower administration for The recent recession Losing the arms race to the Soviets A losing gap in the space race - not true by 1960 The Debates

    9. When polled after the debates, the majority of people who listened to the debates on the radio, said Nixon won Those who watched on TV thought Kennedy won Appearances make a difference The Debates

    10. Kennedy won by a little over 100,000 votes but a wider electoral college margin 303-219 Republicans charged Democrats of stuffing ballot boxes with “votes” of deceased people The Results

    11. Election of 1960

    12. Kennedy was the youngest candidate to ever be elected president Kennedy spoke of “the torch being passed to a new generation” and promised to lead the nation to a “New Frontier” Domestic Policy

    13. JFK moved to the White House with the first lady, Jackie. She brought style, glamour and an appreciation of the arts The press loved the Kennedys and referred to their administration as Camelot and the Court of King Arthur Camelot

    14. Kennedy called for aid to education, health care, urban renewal and civil rights Some of them became law in his 1,000 day administration, most were passed on to LBJ New Frontier Programs

    15. With his lack of progress domestically, JFK turned to foreign policy issues 1961 – Peace Corps Foreign Policy

    16. JFK approved the CIA use of Cuban exiles to overthrow Fidel Castro’s regime in Cuba In April 1961, the CIA trained exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs It failed to set off a general uprising Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1961

    17. The exiles, trapped on the beach, had no choice but to surrender after JFK rejected the idea of using US forces to save them Castro used the invasion to get more aid from the Soviet Union Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1961

    18. The Bay of Pigs invasion will be remembered as JFK’s biggest mistake in his administration Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1961

    19. JFK agreed to meet with Khrushchev in Vienna in 1961 Khrushchev took the occasion to threaten the US, renewing demands that US troops be pulled from Berlin Berlin Wall

    20. In Aug 1961, the East Germans, with Soviet backing, built a wall around West Berlin The purpose was to stop E. Berliners from fleeing to W. Berlin Berlin Wall

    21. American and Soviet tanks faced each other and Kennedy called the reserves, but there was no move to stop the construction of the wall Berlin Wall

    22. When JFK visited Berlin in 1963 he said, “Freedom has many difficulties and democracy is not perfect, but we have never had to put up a wall to keep our people in…As a free man, I take pride in the words, ‘Ich bin ein Berliner’” (I am a Berliner) Berlin Wall

    23. The Berlin Wall stood until it was torn down in 1989 Berlin Wall 1962 1989

    24. The most dangerous challenge from the came in Oct 1962 US reconnaissance planes discovered that the Russians were building underground sites in Cuba for launching missiles that could reach the US in minutes Cuban Missile Crisis

    25. JFK announced to the world that he was setting up a naval blockade of Cuba until the weapons were removed A full-scale nuclear war seemed likely if Soviet ships challenged the US blockade Cuban Missile Crisis

    26. After days of tension, Khrushchev agreed to remove the weapons in exchange for Kennedy’s promise not to invade Cuba Cuban Missile Crisis

    27. Soon after, a telecommunications hotline was established between DC and Moscow to make it possible for the leaders to talk directly during a crisis Cuban Missile Crisis

    28. In 1963, the Soviets, the US and almost 100 other nations signed the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty to end the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere This first step in control the testing of nuclear arms was offset by a new round in the arms race for weapons superiority Cuban Missile Crisis

    29. The policy reduced the risk of using nuclear weapons but increased the temptation to send in elite special forces, such as the Green Beret, into combat in places like South Vietnam Other Conflicts

    30. On Nov. 22, 1963, JFK was killed while riding in a motorcade Lee Harvey Oswald was charged with the crime Oswald was killed by Jack Ruby before going to trial Assassination in Dallas

    31. JFK was loved by people around the world and at home Young people especially were inspired by his idealistic outlook and took his message seriously, “Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.” JFK Remembered

    32. The first televised presidential funeral drew millions of viewers as the nation mourned this great man JFK Remembered

    33. Within hours, LBJ was sworn in on a plane at the Dallas airport Lyndon Baines Johnson

    34. LBJ started in politics during FDR’s New Deal and wanted to follow that lead His program, the Great Society, would expand social reforms Great Society

    35. LBJ knew how to get things done after 30 years in DC He persuaded Congress to Pass an expanded version of Kennedy’s civil rights bill Cut income taxes Great Society

    36. The tax cut sparked an increase in consumer sending and a long period of economic expansion LBJ signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Great Society

    37. Like the New Deal Programs, some of LBJ’s programs were successful and reduced the number of families living in poverty They all faced funding problems as the war in Vietnam took more funds War on Poverty

    38. LBJ and Hubert Humphrey went into the election with a clearly liberal agenda Election of 1964

    39. Election of 1964

    40. Rep. nominated Barry Goldwater, AZ who advocated ending the welfare state, including the TVA and Social Security TV ads depicted him as a dangerous extremist who would be quick to involve us in war Election of 1964

    41. LBJ won re-election with 61% of the popular vote – higher than FDR’s landslide in 1936 Democrats also controlled both houses of Congress by more than a 2/3s margin with a mandate to pass the economic reforms of Truman Election of 1964

    42. Medicare – health care for those over 65 Medicaid – health care for poor and disabled Elementary and Secondary Education Act – provided aid to poor school districts Great Society Reforms

    43. New Immigration law – abolished quotas based on national origins and increased numbers from Asia and Latin America National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities – provided funding for creative/scholarly projects Great Society Reforms

    44. Dept of Transportation (DOT) Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Increased funding for education Increased funding for public housing and crime prevention Great Society Reforms

    45. LBJ has been criticized for his unrealistic goals in the war on poverty, being very costly LBJ hurt his own programs by escalating the war in Vietnam Defenders credit him for giving needed assistance to millions of ‘forgotten’ Americans Historical Perspective

    46. Called the most important civil rights legislation since Reconstruction, LBJ convinced Dems and some Reps to pass this It made segregation illegal in public facilities, including hotels and restaurants Civil Rights Acts, 1964

    47. It gave the federal government additional powers to enforce school desegregation It set up the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to end racial discrimination in employment Civil Rights Acts, 1964

    48. Abolished poll taxes that had been accepted for decades as a method to keep poor, blacks from voting 24th Amendment, 1964