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A PARAPROFESSIONAL’S Guide to Understanding Autism PowerPoint Presentation
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A PARAPROFESSIONAL’S Guide to Understanding Autism

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A PARAPROFESSIONAL’S Guide to Understanding Autism

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  1. Presented by Vicki Sandoval A PARAPROFESSIONAL’S Guide to Understanding Autism

  2. TABLE OF CONTENTS • What is Autism? • Typical Development vs Autism • Sensorimotor Stage • Pre Operational Stage • Concrete Operational Stage • Formal Operational Stage • Difficult Behaviors • Examples • Understanding Behaviors • Changing Behaviors • Behavioral Interventions • Typical Services • Helping Students in Class • Create a Setting… • Instructional Approaches • Developing Skills • Resources

  3. WHAT IS AUTISM? Autism is a life-long developmental disability that prevents people from understanding what they see, hear, and otherwise sense • This results in severe problems with: • Social interactions • Communication • Repetitive Behaviors • Sensory integration 1 of 3

  4. WHAT IS AUTISM? There are five disorders that fall under the umbrella of Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) 2 of 3

  5. WHAT IS AUTISM? Back

  6. Typical Developmental Stages According to Jean Piaget’s Theory there are 4 main stages of Cognitive Development Back

  7. Sensorimotor Stage - birth to age 2 TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT AUTISM No babbling / cooing May have feeding problems Dislikes being changed or bathed Changes in routine causes distress Does not like being cuddled Doesn’t respond to voices / sounds Fails to grasp objects Doesn’t sit, pull up or stand No eye contact Doesn’t respond to name Avoids physical contact such as hugs and kisses Doesn’t listen or understand simple instruction • Smiles / coos / babbles • Responds to voice and sound • Reaches out for objects • Sits up, rolls over, crawls • Follows objects with eyes • Stands / walks • Feeds self finger foods • Gives hugs and kisses • Shows interest in peers Back

  8. Pre Operational Stage - age 2 to 7 TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT autism Unable to manipulate small objects Has a language delay No interest in peers or toys Little balance when running Limited communication skills – points to address needs Expresses insistence on sameness and resistance to change • Uses sentences to expresses wants and ideas • Climbs / runs / jumps • Fine motor skills develop – holds a pencil, uses scissors • Engages in dramatic play • Interacts with peers • Tells a simple story, asks questions • Shows empathy for others Back

  9. Concrete Operational Stage - 7 to 11 TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT autism Clumsy/awkward movements when running Poor sense of balance Difficulty printing or writing Needs coaching to follow simple instructions Unable to sequence events when narrating Oral language skills are limited Prefers to play alone Trouble making friends • Rides a bicycle, plays sports/games • Writes short paragraphs • Understands and follows three or more instructions • Complex language skills – narrates /describes experiences • Understands how to play games with rules Back

  10. Formal Operational Stage age 11+ TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT autism Has difficulty thinking “outside the box” Displays rigidity and gets stuck on certain activities Seems to be in his “own world” May struggle to understanding new concept s • Imagines different realities • Solves hypothetical propositions • Understands consequences Back

  11. DIFFICULT BEHAVIORS • Children with autism display many challenging behaviors. • Sometimes they seem unreachable and impossible to deal with. • It’s important to look at the underlying deficits that contribute to the problems. • It will give us a better understanding of how to help. The behavior has a function for the child. Discover it, then Change it Back

  12. DIFFICULT BEHAVIORSExamples 1 of 3

  13. DIFFICULT BEHAVIORSExamples 2 of 3

  14. DIFFICULT BEHAVIORSExamples Back

  15. UNDERSTANDING BEHAVIORS • Remember: • All behaviors have a purpose for the child • The behavior may be the only way the child knows how to communicate his/her needs • It may also be a way to get your attention • It could be a way to escape or avoid a situation • Tantrums develop as a result of a child’s inability to express their wants and needs. • Anger, anxiety, fear or frustrations can all lead to tantrums. Back

  16. CHANGING BEHAVIORS There are many triggers for negative behaviors • Finding the trigger is the beginning of the solution • A functional analysis helps analyze and understand the child’s behavior • Gives a clear idea about what is triggering the behavior • Shows if there are any patterns to the behavior Back

  17. BEHAVIOR INTERVENTIONA B C CHART Antecedent • What happened? (Trigger) Behavior • What did the child do? (What function does the behavior have?) Consequence • What happened after? (Did the child get what he wanted?) This chart will pinpoint patterns Back

  18. TYPICAL SERVICES Back

  19. HELPING STUDENTS in CLASS Back

  20. CREATE a SETTING that ENCOURAGES LEARNING Back

  21. INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACHES 1 of 4

  22. INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACHES 2 of 4

  23. INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACHES 3 of 4

  24. INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACHES Back

  25. DEVELOPING SKILLS • Conversation skills • Most people with autism have difficulty with the pragmatics of communication (the interpretation and use of language in social situations). • Encourage informal and formal communicative social exchanges during the day. • Social skills • Most students with autism do not know how to interact socially or be involved with others. • They have not automatically learned the rules of interaction with others, hence are unable to follow these unwritten rules of social behavior • Students need opportunities to practice social interactions 1 of 2

  26. DEVELOPING SKILLS • Functional skills • These are skills needed to function as independently as possible in the world. • May need direct instruction in personal hygiene, grooming, and dressing. • Basic academic skills in reading, writing, and mathematics in real life situations is another important area to teach • Students need to learn how to communicate personal information such as their name, birth date, address, and telephone number Back

  27. References • EDUU 675z - Developmental Treatment Modality Planning PowerPoint slideshow (week 3) • EDUU 675z - Developmental Milestones in Autistic Children –PowerPoint slideshow (week 6) • http://psychology.about.com/od/piagetstheory/p/formaloperation.htm • 1001 Great Ideas for Teaching and Raising Children with Autism or Asperger's, 2nd Edition by Ellen Nothohm/Veronica Zysk • Reaching and Teaching children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Best Practices Guide • http://special-needs.families.com/blog/flapping-spinning-waving-whirling-the-child-with-irregular-motor-behavior • http://www.brighttots.com/early_intervention.html • http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialed/docs/autism.pdf • http://www.do2learn.com/sitemap/index.htm Back