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Week 6: Power & Influence . News Theories/Applications Types of power Interpersonal influence Machiavellian manipulation Understanding systems Revenge effects. Discussion. What is power? What types of power do you most often use? What are the types you least often use? Why?

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Week 6: Power & Influence

  • News

  • Theories/Applications

    • Types of power

    • Interpersonal influence

    • Machiavellian manipulation

    • Understanding systems

    • Revenge effects


  • What is power?

  • What types of power do you most often use?

  • What are the types you least often use? Why?

  • How did you develop power?

Self Monitoring

…the ability to observe the reactions of other people to your behavior and adjust your behavior accordingly to improve the relationship

Self Monitoring

15-25= High, 9-14 Moderate, 0-8 Low

___ 1.) I find it hard to imitate the behavior of others. ___ 2.) My behavior is usually an expression of my true inner feelings, attitudes, and beliefs. ___ 3.) At parties and social gatherings, I do not attempt to do or say things that others will like. ___ 4.) I can only argue for ideas which I already believe. ___ 5.) I can make impromptu speeches even on topics about which I have almost no information. ___ 6.) I guess I put on a show to impress or entertain people. ___ 7.) When I am uncertain how to act in a social situation, I look to the behavior of others for

cues. ___ 8.) I would probably make a good actor. ___ 9.) I rarely need the advice of my friends to choose movies, books, or music. ___ 10.) I sometimes appear to others to be experiencing deeper emotions than I actually am. ___ 11.) I laugh more when I watch a comedy with others than when alone. ___ 12.) In a group of people I am rarely the center of attention. ___ 13.) In different situations and with different people, I often act like very different persons. ___ 14.) I am not particularly good at making other people like me. ___ 15.) Even if I am not enjoying myself, I often pretend to be having a good time. ___ 16.) I'm not always the person I appear to be. ___ 17.) I would not change my opinions (or the way I do things) in order to please someone else or

win their favor. ___ 18.) I have considered being an entertainer. ___ 19.) In order to get along and be liked, I tend to be what people expect me to be rather than

anything else. ___ 20.) I have never been good at games like charades or improvisational acting. ___ 21.) I have trouble changing my behavior to suit different people and different situations. ___ 22.) At a party, I let others keep the jokes and stories going. ___ 23.) I feel a bit awkward in company and do not show up quite so well as I should. ___ 24.) I can look anyone in the eye and tell a lie with a straight face (if for a right end). ___ 25.) I may deceive people by being friendly when I really dislike them.

1.) F 2.) F 3.) F 4.) F 5.) T 6.) T 7.) T 8.) T 9.) F 10.) T 11.) T 12.) F 13.) T 14.) F 15.) T 16.) T 17.) F 18.) T 19.) T 20.) F 21.) F 22.) F 23.) F 24.) T 25.) T


(behavioral flexibility)

Attention to situational and interpersonal cues & reactions

  • Less predictable and consistent across situations

  • More likely to get promoted

  • Greater mobility (job related geographic moves)

  • Accomplish tasks by meeting other’s expectations

  • May be more responsive to group norms

  • Takes on more flexible (multiple) roles

  • Attitudes don’t predict behavior

  • Good at detecting emotions & lies

High Scorers

  • Not as vigilant and tends to act on internal states

  • Consistent across situations

  • May intentionally offend people

  • View self as principles

  • Attitudes predict behavior

  • Less good at lying & detecting lies

  • Closely acquainted social group

Low Scorers

Thematic Apperception Cards

Distribution of Need Behaviors



  • Must win at any cost

  • Must be on top & receive all credit

  • Fears failure

  • Avoids responsibility, risks & actions


  • Remains aloof

  • Maintains social distance

  • Demands blind loyalty & harmony

  • Not tolerate disagreement


  • Control everyone & everything

  • Exaggerates own position & resources

  • Dependent and subordinate

  • Minimizes position & resources


Conclusions about Mach

  • Men are generally more Machiavellian than women

  • Older adults have lower Mach scores than younger

  • There is no difference between high and low Machs on intelligence and ability

  • Mach is not related to demographic variables such as educational level or status

  • High Machs tend to be in professions that emphasize control and manipulation of people: politics, management, religion, advertising, law, and behavioral sciences

The copier request study

“Excuse me, may I use the Xerox machine, because I’m late to class?”

“Excuse me, may I use the Xerox machine?”



“Excuse me, may I use the Xerox machine, because I have to make some copies?”





“because”…(it doesn’t matter why…)

Dissonance Tasks

Group 1

Paid only $1

Paid $20

Group 2


Which Group reported liking the task more?

Participants complete

a boring task

Cognitive Dissonance

  • psychological discomfort caused by inconsistencies among a person’s beliefs, attitudes, and actions

  • varies in intensity based on importance of issue and degree of inconsistency

  • induces a “drive state” to avoid or reduce dissonance by changing beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors and thereby restore consistency


Tendency to avoid information can be countered by eliciting interest,

norm of fairness, or perceive usefulness of information

Post-decision “buyer’s remorse” may be increased by importance or difficulty or irreversibility of decision

Counter-attitudinal action, freely chosen with little incentive or justification, leads to attitude change (e.g., new product at special low price)




  • Attention Getting

    • Ad, promo, announcement

    • physical, emotional, cognitive attention-getters

  • Confidence Building (credibility & trust)

    • expertise (authority figures)

    • sincerity (smiles, gestures)

    • benevolence (brand names, associations)

  • Desire (need for change or product)

    • praise the product (quality, efficiency, etc.)

    • promise audience benefits (needs)

  • Urgency (act quickly)

    • elicit emotional response to rush without thinking

    • deadlines, emergencies, sales

  • Action (desired behavior)

    • trigger words (“vote,” “buy.” etc.)

    • devices: coupons, contests, sweepstakes, 800 #

Persuasion Tactics

Reciprocation: Give & Take, gifts & prizes, free, samplers

Commitment & consistency: careful decision & justify, bait & switch, FITD, 30-day trial period

Comparison & contrast: everyone else does it, canned laughter, salting collection plate, audience ringers, presigned contributors, testimonials, my idea is better because…

Likeability: attractiveness, similarity, compliment, nice, Tupperware parties, Mary Kay cosmetics, celebrities

Authority: title, office, uniform, expert, degree, “I’m no doctor but I play one on TV…,” doctors agree…

Card stacking: one-sided information, list, testimonials

Scarcity: limited quantity makes it valuable, limited time only, first come first served

Demonstration: See how easy, you can do it too, look how nice

Audience Tactics

  • they care about topic

  • if you fail they will actively work against you

  • scale back goal (won’t convince them)

  • approach indirectly; don’t give away reasoning—

  • make them think along with you



  • adversely convinced but not actuated

  • build appeal on logic

  • appear objective



  • Uninformed: time to inform, scale back goal

  • Consciously neutral: self-restraint, use logic

  • Apathetic: arouse feelings, provide support



  • because they know they may become bored

  • may become insulted with basics

  • persuade to follow specific course of action

  • convince of the practicality of the action


Providing Argument & Evidence

  • Reasoning

    • avoid generalizing about what everyone knows

    • have prepared examples, statistics, quotes

    • sequence argument logically

    • use sources that are credible to audience

  • Emotion

    • use language that arouses emotion

    • focus emotional appeals on major points

    • use vivid descriptions & explanations

    • build credibility

    • deliver evidence in a confident, convincing manner

Elaboration Likelihood Method (ELM)

Of Persuasion

Or, what you think is what you get…

Motivated to Process?

  • personal relevance

  • personal importance

  • personal responsibility

  • dissonance arousal

  • need for cognition

  • repetition

Ability to Process?

  • cognitive complexity

  • critical thinking

  • distraction free

  • low arousal

  • appropriate schema

  • message pace

  • repetition

  • issue familiarity

Nature of Active Cognitive Processing: (initial attitude, argument quality, etc.)







Neither or



Enduring positive attitude change (persuasion)

Enduring negative attitude change (boomerang)

Persuasive Communication

  • Attitude Shift:

  • short-lived

  • susceptible to influence

  • unpredictable

  • Peripheral Cues Present?

  • reciprocity (obligated, did a favor)

  • consistency (way it’s done, similar to before)

  • social proof (peer pressure, conformity)

  • liking (attractiveness, friendliness)

  • celebrity (identification, prestige)

  • authority (expertise, experience, credibility)

  • rapid speech, forceful presentation, charismatic style

  • scarcity (limited time offer)

  • tangible rewards

  • appealing visuals & music (emotional arousal)

  • fear appeal

  • weak counter-arguments

Retain or Regain Initial Attitude

Cognitive Structure Change: Are new cognitions adopted and stored in memory? Are different responses made salient than previously?

  • greater persistence

  • resistant to counterattacks & fading

  • predictive of behavior

  • > brand memory

  • > elaboration

  • >usage intention

  • > attitude accessibility

  • > attitude confidence

  • > attitude-behavior consistency

Foot in the door…

First make a small request, then when granted, make a larger (more desirable) request

  • works best with prosocial/altruistic requests

  • works best if no extra incentives are offered

  • 10% improvement over simple request, 20% if no incentive

  • works by cognitive dissonance & self esteem

Door in the face…

Make a large request, then when it is refused, make a smaller (more desired) request

  • more effective if prosocial/altruistic (do it for everybody) than selfish

  • should be no delay between requests

  • slight delay produces 10% improvement, no delay 20%

  • works by reciprocal concessions

What do we know about lying?

  • 60% of people lie, males more than females (3x), average 25 times a day

  • The general public holds many misconceptions about lying behavior

  • Uncovering lying is easier for younger, women, trained people

  • Actors are better than non-actors, and practice improves lying

  • Good liars may use details to make their stories believable, but may have to search for details, be inconsistent, or elaborate over time

  • In a self-test experiment in which they were asked to take a test but not look at the answers on the back of the page, 40% routinely cheated (60% if there was a reward for performance). 100% of those who cheated lied about doing so.

  • In experiments at the University of Massachusetts, students were encouraged to introduced themselves to others. Over 60% lied about themselves (3 times every 10 minutes!), made up fictitious information to make themselves look better, yet there was no benefit to the lie.

Possible verbal indicators of lying

  • Expand contractions, stressing full-form verbs, such as "did not" and "could not," to convince people they're speaking the truth.

  • Deny lying, making emphatic claims to be telling the truth, such as "I have no reason to lie." Pause and use nonword sounds during hesitations in their speech ("uh," "er" and "ah" are examples).

  • Make speech errors and more frequent gaffes than people who speak the truth. Errors can include grammar, tense and losing thought in midsentence.

  • Stutter, stammer and become tongue-tied.

  • Clear their throats and make other noises.

  • Use qualifiers and modifiers, explanatory words, such as "however," "sometimes" and "generally."

Possible nonverbal indications of lying

  • Avert their gaze, trying to avoid eye contact.

  • Close their hands/interlock their fingers.

  • Cross their arms as if creating a barrier.

  • Drink and swallow more often than those who tell the truth.

  • Use fewer hand gestures, staying stiff, controlling the movements of their hands.

  • Shrug their shoulders and flip their hands over in an "open" (palms up) fashion.

  • Perform hand-to-face grooming, touching their face, ears and hair.

  • Handle objects, such as pens, papers and eyeglasses.

  • Blink less than people who tell the truth.

  • Do less finger pointing.

  • Lean and shift — leaning forward, resting their elbows on desktops or their knees. They also shift often when sitting.

  • Lick their lips often.

  • Pucker and tighten their lips.

  • Sigh and take deep breaths.

  • Smile more and laugh inappropriately.

  • Touch, scratch and rub their nose frequently.

NLP– the “eyes” have it










Kenneth Lay

Enron CEO

Recall Sound

Analysis of Clinton’s testimony regarding Lewinsky affair

  • 21 of the 23 indicators were clearly present, half the signs increased by more than 100%

  • during truthful portions he did not lean at all, but during lying he leaned many times

  • during a 16 minute segment of truthful testimony Clinton never touched his nose, but did so repeatedly while lying

  • speech errors (1733%), stuttering (1444%), modifiers & qualifiers (402%), drinking & swallowing (355%), reduced blinking (268%), hand to face touching (250%), averting gaze (219%), expanded contractions (117%), leaning (100%), denials (63%),

Systems Principles

  • Today's problems come from yesterday's solutions.

  • The harder you push, the harder the system pushes back.

  • Behavior grows better before it grows worse.

  • The easy way out usually leads back in.

  • The cure can be worse than the disease.

  • Faster is slower.

  • Cause and effect are not closely related in time and space.

  • Small changes can produce big results--but the areas of highest

  • leverage are often the least obvious.

  • You can have your cake and eat it too--but not all at once.

  • Dividing an elephant in half does not produce two small elephants.

  • There is no blame.

Above causal loop diagram represents the key business dynamics for operations of the H-Desk Company. It may be helpful in locating the sources of different problems within the system as well as identifying the leverage points to rectify these problems. Note that a + sign means that cause and effect move in the same direction whereas a - sign indicate that they move in opposite to each other.

Understanding Obstacles to Innovation dynamics for operations of the H-Desk Company. It may be helpful in locating the sources of different problems within the system as well as identifying the leverage points to rectify these problems. Note that a + sign means that cause and effect move in the same direction whereas a - sign indicate that they move in opposite to each other.

Systems Theory Application

Variations in Work & dynamics for operations of the H-Desk Company. It may be helpful in locating the sources of different problems within the system as well as identifying the leverage points to rectify these problems. Note that a + sign means that cause and effect move in the same direction whereas a - sign indicate that they move in opposite to each other.

Leadership Style

  • For 124 mid- and first-level managers, only

  • 14% were seen as using the same style across four situations

  • In another sample of 124

    • 2.4% had a single style

    • .8% had a dual approach

    • 94.4 were multi-style (3 or more of 6 styles)

    • 2.4 unclassified

  • The most variance in leader style was accounted for by

  • situations requiring quality solution and/or subordinate

  • acceptance in decision making