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Statistics Chapter 1. Lessons 1.1 – 1.3 Instructor: Mrs. Carroll. 1.1 Intro to Statistics. Statistics : the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing and interpreting data in order to make decisions

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statistics chapter 1

Statistics Chapter 1

Lessons 1.1 – 1.3

Instructor: Mrs. Carroll

1 1 intro to statistics
1.1 Intro to Statistics
  • Statistics: the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing and interpreting data in order to make decisions
  • Data - information coming from observations, counts, measurements or responses. The singular form is datum.
data sets
Data Sets
  • Population: the collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements or counts that are of interest
  • Sample: a subset of a population
  • **it is usually impractical to obtain all of the data. In most studies, information must be obtained from a sample
population or sample
Population or Sample
  • Find the population and sample in each example:
  • 1) 50 Mill Creek HS seniors were surveyed to find out what song they wanted for their senior song.
  • 2) 2000 Republicans were polled to predict the outcome of the Republican presidential primary.
results of data collection
Results of Data Collection
  • Parameter: a numerical description of a population characteristic
  • Statistic: a numerical description of a sample characteristic
  • Memory Tip: Think p for p, s for s.
parameter or statistic
Parameter or Statistic?
  • 1) Of the 70 American Women surveyed, 35 said they prefer The Voice to American Idol. According to this survey, 50% of American Women prefer The Voice to American Idol.
  • 2) The average professor salary at Orange Coast Community College is $45,000.
branches of statistics
Branches of Statistics
  • Descriptive Statistics: a branch of statistics that involves the organization, summarization and displaying of data.
  • Inferential Statistics: branch of statistics that involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population. A basic tool in the study of inferential statistics is probability.
quantitative qualitative data types2
Quantitative/Qualitative Data Types
  • Watch out for data that looks quantitative but really isn’t! - These have no real numeric value and no meaningful order.
  • Examples:
  • Social security numbers
  • Phone numbers
  • ID #s
quantitative qualitative data types3
Quantitative/Qualitative Data Types
  • What type of data is it?
  • Grade point average
  • Jersey Numbers of Lacrosse Players
  • Hair Color
  • Number of Siblings
  • Student ID Number
  • SAT Score
  • Weight in pounds
  • Movie Rating (G, PG, PG-13, R)
  • Temperature in Degrees F
  • Finishing place in Track event (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.)
classify data by level ratio
Classify Data by Level - Ratio

Ratio Level - __________________ data.

Categorize, put in order, find meaningful differences, AND find ratios. Also must have a true zero. Like average rainfall. Zero rainfall means NO rain fell. 20 inches is twice as much rain as 10 inches.

Key Questions:

1)Does zero mean “none”?

  • Does “twice as much” or “twice as many” make sense?

Yes to both means ratio level.

Examples: rainfall, money

Can you think of data that is ratio level?

classify data by level interval
Classify Data by Level - Interval

Interval Level - __________________ data.

Categorize, put in order, AND find meaningful differences between values. Like average temperature.

The key here is that you must be able to subtract the values to show a real difference – like, “Today was ten degrees hotter than yesterday.”

Examples: temperature, dates

classify data by level ordinal
Classify Data by Level - Ordinal

Ordinal Level - __________________ OR _______________ data.

Categorize AND put in order, like good, better, and best product ratings.

How else do you categorize with an order?

classify data by level nominal
Classify Data by Level - Nominal

Nominal Level - __________________ data.

Categorizes things – like genres of music.

How else do you categorize things or people?

classify data level
Classify – Data Level
  • Nominal, Ordinal, Interval or Ratio
  • 1) Is it qualitative or quantitative?

Nominal or Ordinal Ordinal, Interval, or Ratio

classify data level1
Classify – Data Level
  • Qualitative: Nominal or Ordinal
  • Can you meaningfully order it?

No Yes

Nominal Ordinal

classify data level2
Classify – Data Level
  • Quantitative Data : Ordinal, Interval or Ratio
  • 1) Does twice as much have meaning?

No Yes

Ordinal or IntervalRatio

  • Meaningful numeric differences?

No Yes

OrdinalInterval

sampling
Sampling
  • Sampling is a count or measure of a part of the population. Sampling produces statistics.
  • The difference between a statistic and a parameter is that a statistic is obtained from a part of the population (sample), while a parameter is obtained by measuring the entire population.
sampling techniques simple random
Sampling TechniquesSimple Random
  • Every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected
sampling techniques stratified random
Sampling TechniquesStratified Random
  • Population is separated into groups (strata) – like age groups, gender, classes, etc.
  • A random sample is then selected from each strata.
sampling techniques cluster
Sampling TechniquesCluster
  • Population is separated into groups – like age groups, gender, classes, etc.
  • One or more groups is selected and ALL of the members of those groups are selected.
sampling techniques systematic
Sampling TechniquesSystematic
  • A system (or rule) is used to select the members of the sample.
  • EX: every 100th customer, the first person listed on each page of the phone book, etc.
sampling techniques convenience
Sampling TechniquesConvenience
  • Sample is selected based on easy access for the researcher.
  • EX: You survey your friends or your family, or the people sitting next to you at lunch.
identify sampling techniques cont
Identify Sampling Techniques (cont.)
  • 3. You select the first 5 people who approach you at the mall.
  • 4. You assign each person a number and select every 25th person.
  • 5. You survey the drama club and the track team to obtain information about student opinions on lunch choices.