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Quiz # 1. The “hole” in the ozone layer is now known to be caused by CFCs used in ______ The Beijing Protocol was signed in 2001 to regulate CFC emissions in the atmosphere T____ F______

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quiz 1
Quiz # 1
  • The “hole” in the ozone layer is now known to be caused by CFCs used in ______
  • The Beijing Protocol was signed in 2001 to regulate CFC emissions in the atmosphere T____ F______
  • HCFC-22 contributes to both global warming and thinning of ozone and is now heavily used by the ________to make __________
the rise of industrial society

The Rise of Industrial Society

Harnessing new energy sources, linking modern society to carbon and steam (and eventually global warming).

James Watt and the invention of the steam engine-1769.

Late 18th century, first concerns about “smoke nuisance”

making taller chimneys throw the stuff higher in the air
Making Taller Chimneys: Throw the Stuff Higher in the Air!
  • “….to convey the noxious gases to such a height that they shall be so intermingled with the atmosphere as not to be injurious to health” 1855.
  • 1846- 1853: more than 100 new tall chimneys a year in London. “Hell is a city much like London-a populous and smoky city”
  • Charles Dickens Hard Times (1854)…” a river that ran purple with ill-smelling dye’
widespread industrial pollution
Widespread Industrial Pollution
  • The waters of the river Calder could be used as grey ink in the 1860s.
  • In the same decade children routinely amused themselves by setting fire to the waters of the Bradford Canal.
  • In 1936, the waters of the Trent were lethal to all animal and plant life for a stretch of 130 miles.
the rise of oil
The Rise of Oil
  • For centuries a black fluid bubbled to the surface. Skimmed off by Native Americans for medicines, dyes, and weatherproofing teepees.
  • 1824-salt drillers in Kentucky run out of town because they hit oil and made a “foul mess”.
  • Rising expense and demand for whale oil.
  • 1859-Oil City, PA “They’ve struck oil”….a liquid fossil fuel millions of years in creation. More ancient carbon emissions into the atmosphere.
john d rockefeller and the rise of standard oil
John D. Rockefeller and the Rise of Standard Oil
  • Belgian Inventor in 1860 developed first internal combustion engine-Etiene Lenoir.
  • Otto Daimler and Karl Benz, German inventors, by 1889 developed new versions for automobiles.
  • Internal combustion engine became single largest factor in making petroleum the most important energy source in the world.
  • made John D. Rockefeller the first billionaire.
automobiles solving one problem horse manure and creating another global warming

Automobiles: Solving One Problem (Horse Manure) and Creating Another (Global Warming)

Street sweepers praised the automobile for making their job easier: less manure to pick up and cart, fewer stables and manure pits, and not as many animal carcasses to dispose of.

forcing the market eliminate public transportaton
Forcing the Market: Eliminate Public Transportaton
  • General Motors, Standard Oil of California, Firestone Tire and Rubber joined forces to buy up rail and trolley lines in cities across the countries and then tear up the tracks.
  • At the same time, public funds were used to build “freeways” because now everyone had to have a car
suburbunization of america made possible by the car
Suburbunization of America made possible by the car
  • Huge expansion of suburbia after World War II
  • Made it necessary for everyone to have TWO cars
automobiles the environment and global warming
Automobiles, the Environment and Global Warming

Environmental impacts start with mineral extraction and the production of the raw materials that go into the parts of a car.

For example, iron ore gets turned into steel, which now accounts for most of the mass in vehicles.

But steel can be recycled, and on average, today's automobiles are about 75 percent recyclable, and using recycled steel helps reduce energy use and pollution

other automobile components
Other automobile components
  • Other metal components, such as aluminum (used in some engine parts and wheels, for example) and copper (used for wiring) are also largely recycled.
  • The lead and acid in batteries are poisonous and dangerous. But batteries can be recycled, if they are returned to a service station, a parts store, or brought to a municipal hazardous waste facility.
  • Plastics, which are mostly made from petroleum, are more difficult to recycle.
  • Some degree of pollution is associated with all of these components, much of it due to the energy consumption, air pollution, and releases of toxic substances that occur when automobiles are manufactured and distributed.

In 2002 there were 590 million cars in the world. That is one for every ten people. There are 140 million cars in the United States and 55 million in Japan. This contrasts with just nine million cars in China and 6 million in India.

designing our way out of the problem

Designing our way out of the problem

“You know you are in a stagnant industry when the big product innovation of the past decade is more cup holders” Hunter et al. 1999

the modern car the efficiency problem
The Modern Car: The Efficiency Problem

The Problem:

  • At least 80% of the fuel consumed is lost through exhaust and engine heat.
  • 95% of the energy used to move the car, 95% moves the car, 5% moves the driver.
  • Thus, 1% of the energy consumed moves the driver.
The vehicle is about 20x heavier than the driver, and the engine about 10x larger than is required for most driving.
  • The large engine is required to accelerate the heavy vehicle
the hyper car amory lovins concept
The Hyper Car: Amory Lovins Concept
  • the problem is the use of steel “Steel is a splendid material if weight is an unimportant or advantageous factor, but in a car, weight is neither”
  • Carbon fiber composites (carbon, Kevlar, glass, and other fibers) can cut weight by half or a third.
  • Steamlining: make the underside as smooth as the top.
  • .
Doubled-efficiency tires already on the market.
  • Can cut by half or more the power needed to move car and passengers.
  • Cuts the weight of a Ford Taurus from 3,140 lbs to 1,300 lbs
Reduces the need for other components based on weight.
  • Indy 500 cars are currently made of carbon fiber composites, and can withstand crashes with less injury.
  • Currently expensive but more investment would bring the price down, already used in other industries, like boats
  • Replace the current complex mechanical systems with solid state electronics and software.
  • An immediate benefit would be that the twenty or so most frequent mechanical causes of breakdowns would no longer be components of the car at all
Big automakers start with two major disadvantages: 1) they are big and 2) they are automakers
  • Hypercars will more resemble computers with wheels than cars with chips.