Feudalism and Manorialism The social, political, and economic systems of the middle ages.
The Middle Ages or Medieval Period ( 500 CE -1500 CE.) Rise of New Kingdoms/States that are not united (Charlemagne’s empire was short-lived) New Kingdoms are unable to protect themselves from Barbarian Invasions, causing a need for localized Protection Barbarian Invasions cause the Fall of the Western Roman Empire The Rise of Feudalism in Europe
Feudalism • A political and social system of the middle ages based upon relationships of mutual obligations. • It was a system of extreme political decentralization where public power was held and exercised in private hands. • This system was derived as a result of no strong central government. (There were still kings they were just weak!)
Feudalism Continued! • This system was based upon the exchange of land for protection. • A grant of land was called a fief. • The individual who granted the land is known as a lord and the individual who receives the land is known as a vassal.
Commendation Ceremony • Ceremony began with the act of homage (agreement to provide military service in return for land) • This officially entered the two parties in a feudal relationship. • This was followed by an oath of fidelity.
Feudalism continued • Kings were lords • Upper nobility and clergy could be lords and vassals • Lesser nobility (knights) were vassals
Feudalism continued • The reason Feudalism worked is because everyone benefited from this system • Fiefs were typically broken up into large farming estates known as manors • Typically a knight was the lord of the individual manor
Manorialism • While Feudalism provided a political and social system, Manorialism was the economic system of this time. • Economic System- the means of producing, distributing, and consuming goods • Manorialism—economic agricultural system by which the lord of the manor relied upon the labor of peasants who worked his estate or fief.
Manorialism Continued • Manorialism got its name from the manor or large farming estates that fiefs were broken into. • There was little to no trade during this time because it was unsafe to leave one’s manor. • As a result people became self-sufficient.
Manorialism continued • Everything that was needed was produced on one’s manor. • Food, clothing, and shelter were all produced on the manner. • The land on the manor was shared by a lord and several peasant families.
Manorialism continued • The lord kept 1/3 of the land for himself which was known as his domain. • The peasants/serfs farmed the remaining 2/3 of the land. • In return for being allowed to work the land the peasants gave the lord some of their crops, farmed his land, and also paid taxes.
The Composition of a Manor • Manors were comprised of a manor house (where the lord lived), cultivated lands, woodlands (to hunt), pastures (for cattle), fields, a village, a church, a priests house, a mill (used to grind grains into flower, and an oven. • Ideally were located along stream or river to provide power for the mill.
Manorialism Continued • They used an early form of crop rotation on manors. • The manor was divided into 3 fields. Only 2 were planted at a time and the third lay fallow to regain its fertiltiy.