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  1. Do Now • Which list includes elements with the most similar chemical properties? • Br, Ga, Hg • Cr, Pb, Xe • O, S, Se • N, O, F

  2. Periodicity, Part 1.5 Williamsburg High School for Architecture and Design Mr. Quinn and Ms. Tom 10/29/13

  3. Aim • How is the periodic table organized?

  4. Atomic Radius The distance from the middle of the nucleus to the outermost electron shell

  5. Outer Shell Electrons aka Valence Electrons The total number of electrons on the outer shell • This includes the s- and p-sublevels

  6. Ionization Energy • The amount of energy required to remove a valence electron

  7. Electron Affinity • The amount of energy gained by adding an electron to the outer shell

  8. Electron Affinity • As we move across a period, electron affinity… • Increases • As we move down a group, electron affinity… • Stays the same

  9. Electron Affinity • As number of valence electrons increases, electron affinity… • Increases • As ionization energy increases, electron affinity… • Increases

  10. Electronegativity • The total ability of an atom to hold an electron

  11. Electronegativity • As we move across a period, electronegativity… • Increases • As we move down a group, electronegativity… • Decreases

  12. Electronegativity • As atomic radius increases, electronegativity… • Decreases • As number of valence electrons increases, electronegativity… • Increases

  13. Electronegativity • As ionization energy increases, electronegativity… • Increases • As electron affinity increases, electronegativity… • Increases

  14. Many valence electrons High Ionization Energy High electron affinity High electronegativity To Recap… High Atomic Radius

  15. Regents Problems, Round 1 • The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing • atomic mass • atomic number • molar mass • oxidation number

  16. Regents Problems, Round 2 • Which list of elements from Group 2 on the Periodic Table is arranged in order of increasing atomic radius? • Be, Mg, Ca • Ca, Mg, Be • Ba, Ra, Sr • Sr, Ra, Ba

  17. Regents Problems, Round 3 • Which atom in the ground state requires the least amount of energy to remove its valence electron? • lithium atom • potassium atom • rubidium atom • sodium atom

  18. Regents Problems, Round 4 • Which general trend is found in Period 3 as the elements are considered in order of increasing atomic number? • increasing atomic radius • increasing electronegativity • decreasing atomic mass • decreasing first ionization energy

  19. Regents Problems, Round 5 • Compared to the atoms of nonmetals in Period 3, the atoms of metals in Period 3 have • fewer valence electrons • more valence electrons • fewer electron shells • more electron shells

  20. Regents Problems, Round 6 • In the ground state, each atom of an element has two valence electrons. This element has a lower first ionization energy than calcium. Where is this element located on the Periodic Table? • Group 1, Period 4 • Group 2, Period 5 • Group 2, Period 3 • Group 3, Period4

  21. Regents Problems, Round 7 • An atom of which element has the greatest attraction for the electrons in a bond with a hydrogen atom? • Chlorine • Phosphorus • Silicon • sulfur

  22. Regents Problems, Round 8 • As the elements is Period 3 are considered in order of increasing atomic number, there is a general decrease in • atomic mass • atomic radius • electronegativity • first ionization energy

  23. Regents Problems, Round 9 • Which element has chemical properties that are most similar to the chemical properties of sodium? • Beryllium • Calcium • Lithium • magnesium

  24. Regents Problems, Round 10 • As atomic number increases within Group 15 on the Periodic Table, atomic radius • decreases, only • increases, only • decreases, then increases • increases, then decreases