Governor Houston’s Response to Secession • Sam Houston tried his best to prevent secession. • Sam Houston even hoped that Texas would remain independent instead of joining the Confederate States of America. • March 16, the Secession Convention required all government officials to take a new oathto pledge their loyalty to the Confederacy. • When Sam Houston was called to take the oath, he remained quiet and the office of governor of Texas was declared vacant. • Sam Houston remained in his “steamboat house” until his death in July of 1863.
Advantages vs. Disadvantages The South: 11 states - 9 million people Army- 600,000 -1,500,000 total No real Navy Superior military leaders Strong motivation Fighting on homeground Fighting for States’Rights and Slavery The North: 23 states – 22 million people Army- 2 million Navy - 671 ships Superior leadership - Lincoln Military power Industrial power ¾ more railroads Weak motivation Far from home
Leaders of the Army The Confederates: General Robert E. Lee The Union: General Ulysses S. Grant
Francis R. Lubbock was elected as the new Confederate Governor of Texas. Jefferson Davis was the new elected President of the Confederate States of America. Plan: remove all U.S. (federal) troops from Texas and other Confederate states. U.S. troops at Fort Sumter refused to leave, and so began the war on April 21, 1861. Texans Fight for the Confederacy
Military Strength of Texas • 60,000 to 70,000 men volunteer to fight for the Confederacy. • By 1862, 32 companies had been organized with Texas fighters. • Texas Brigade • Sent to Virginia to fight • Later named Hood’s Texas Brigade in honor of their first commander, John Bell Hood. • General Lee called these men “my Texans.”
Military Strength in Texas • Terry’s Texas Rangers • Commanded by General Benjamin Frank Terry • Ross’ Brigade • Commanded by General Lawrence “Sul” Ross • Many Texans who fought in the war fought for the Army of Northern Virginia, the Army of Tennessee, or the Army of the Trans-Mississippi. • Generals Albert Sidney Johnston and Ben McCulloch led their troops until each bravely fell during battle.
Sending More Troops to Fight • Once the volunteers stopped signing up to fight, the Confederacy needed more troops. • The Confederacy began a draft requiring men to serve in the military. • This draft angered many people • Soldiers who volunteered did not trust the men who were forced to fight. • The draft law allowed for men who owned 20 or more slaves to stay at home instead of fight. • The draft also threatened cotton production. How?
Military Affairs in Texas • Most of the fighting in Texas centered on Confederate efforts to keep the Gulf Coast ports open. • “Storehouse of the Confederacy” • Texas provided weapons, food and horses for the war effort. • No major battles were fought in Texas, however, several important events took place on the coast or near the state border.
Battle of Galveston Island • President Lincoln had ordered a blockade of Southern ports to stop the shipment of supplies. • Galveston was one of the most important ports in Texas. • Union troops captured the island. • Confederate General Magruder launched an attack to retake the island on January 1, 1863. • Soldiers sailed to the island on cottonclads, or flatbottom boats lined with cotton bales to protect the soldiers from bullets. • Confederate troops took over Galveston Island and they remained in control until the end of the war.
Freedom! On January 1, 1863, Lincoln signed the “Emancipation Proclamation.” It said “…all persons held as slaves within any state…in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.”
Other Texas Military Campaigns • On September 8, 1863, the battle of Sabine Pass took place. • Sabine Pass is a narrow channel along the eastern border of Texas. • As Union troops attempted to pass through the channel, they were stopped by Lt. Dowling. • Confederate troops fired upon the Union troops and sank two ships. • Confederates hailed the victory after their defeats at Gettysburg, PA and Vicksburg, MS.
Battle of Mansfield, Louisiana • General Banks tried to bring troops into Texas by going up the Mississippi River and across the Red River. • His goal: cut off the railroads leading to and from Texas • Confederate soldiers were waiting on the Union soldiers and fired upon sight. • Confederates win the battle and force the Union troops to retreat. • Texas was now safe from invasion.
Surrender! On April 9, 1865, General Lee and his troops surrender to General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia. Terms of surrender: Rebels had to lay down their arms Could not join military again There would be no jailing or hanging South would not be punished The War is over!...or is it??
Battle of Palmito Ranch • The last land battle of the Civil War. • Fought on March 12, 1865, about one month after the official surrender of the Confederacy. • Unaware the war was over, Union forces fired upon the Confederate forces in what became a skirmish at Palmito Ranch. • Although the Confederates won this battle, they had already lost the war.
Exit Ticket • Who was the Confederate General? • Who was the Union General? • Who was the Confederate President? • Who was the Union President?
Exit Ticket • Where did most of the fighting in Texas Occur (what areas of the state)? • What did Texas provide the War effort (what items)? • The Union captured, and lost, ______ port. The busiest port in Texas. • Why did Sam Houston Refuse to continue serving as Texas Governor?