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Secession & War. Chapter 5. Events leading to the Civil War. Politics & Slavery. SLAVERY was important to the economy and the society in the United States, especially in the South. Whites in the North as well as in the South believed blacks were inferior to whites.

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politics slavery
Politics & Slavery
  • SLAVERY was important to the economy and the society in the United States, especially in the South.
  • Whites in the North as well as in the South believed blacks were inferior to whites.
  • Slavery was so controversial that many avoided mentioning it in politics.
  • The U.S. Constitution never mentions the words slave or slavery.
    • The terms “all other persons” or “persons held to service or labor” are used instead.

Slavery could not be ignored for long. The issue had to be addressed when Missouri wanted to join the Union in 1819.

  • Before 1819, there were an equal number of free and slave states. The question was would Missouri become a free or a slave state.
  • The Missouri Compromise was passed by Congress in 1819.
    • A line was drawn at 36° 30’ Nlatitude
    • Everything north of the line would be a free state.
    • Missouri became a slave state and Maine became a free state.
antislavery movement
Antislavery Movement
  • The American Colonization Society (ACS) formedin 1817.
  •  The ACS supported freedom for slaves and removing them to Africa.
    • Nearly 600 freed blacks left MS to live in the newly created country of Liberia in Africa.

Other abolitionists worked for the emancipation (freedom) of the slaves.

  • The Liberator was an antislavery newspaper published by abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison
nullification crisis
Nullification Crisis
  • In the early 1800s, Congress passed a series of tariffs (tax on imports) which drove up the price of imported goods.
    • The agricultural South relied on imports and blamed the tariffs for the poor economy.
    • Most southerners believed that the rights of states should prevail over rights of federal government (states’ rights) and wanted to nullify (prevent the enforcement of) the tariffs.

John C. Calhoun, the vice president at the time, wrote The South Carolina Expedition which stated that a state had the right to nullify a federal law.

  • In response, Congress passed a bill that denied the states the right to nullify a law.

When the United States acquired new land from Mexico as a result of the Mexican-American War, the question of slavery was raised again.

  • Congress settled the debate with the Compromise of 1850.
    • California was admitted as a free state.
    • Western territories were to be determined by popular sovereignty.
    • Stronger fugitive slave law

The issue was thought to be settle but in 1854, Congress passed the Kansas/Nebraska Act.

  • It permitted Kansas to decide on slavery by popular sovereignty even though the state was north of 36° 30’ N Missouri Compromise line.
    • Abolitionists were outraged.
    • The Republican party was formed to oppose the expansion of slavery in 1854.

What is secession?

    • Withdrawal from the Union
1860 presidential election
1860 Presidential Election
  • How many political parties were there in the election of 1860?
    • 4
    • Each party had a platform. What is a platform?
      • Statement of the principles and policies a party supports
  • Name the parties and their candidates.
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • Platform: No slavery in

the territories but would

not interfere with slave


  • Stephen Douglas
  • Platform: Supported

popular sovereignty

southern democrat
Southern Democrat
  • John Breckinridge
  • Platform: Wanted to

preserve slavery

constitutional union
Constitutional Union
  • John Bell
  • Platform: Wanted a

peaceful way to save

the Union

what did the election of 1860 reveal to thousands across the country
What did the election of 1860 reveal to thousands across the country?
  • There were deep divisions in the country.

Order of Secession:

    • 1st - South Carolina
    • 2nd – Mississippi*
    • 3rd – Alabama
    • 4th – Georgia
    • 5th – Florida
    • 6th – Louisiana
    • 7th – Texas
    • 8th – Virginia
    • 9th – North Carolina
    • 10th – Tennessee
    • 11th – Arkansas
confederate states of america1
Confederate States of America
  • The new government was called the Confederate States of America.
  • Jefferson Davis from MS was elected president.

The first capital of the Confederacy was Montgomery, Alabama until Virginia seceded. The capital for most of the war was Richmond, Virginia.

  • The Confederate government allowed states’ rights and slavery was protected.
    • The president served a 6 year term under the new government.
  • The first shot of the war was fired at Fort Sumter, South Carolina.

Southern advantages:

    • Money from “King Cotton”
    • Well trained military officers
  • Northern advantages:
    • The North had more resources, industry, railroads, and a larger population.
  • The only way the North could win was to invade and conquer the South.
  • The Mississippi River played a large part in the war.
    • The North would be able to split the Confederacy & cut off western supply routes if it controlled the river.
battle of shiloh
Battle of Shiloh
  • Basic statistics of the Battle of Shiloh near Corinth, Mississippi.
    • 3477 – Union/Confederate killed
    • 16,420 – wounded
    • 3844 – captured or missing
  • A horrible, frightening impression was made at Shiloh.
    • It proved it would be a bloody war
    • The battle frightened soldiersbut made them more determined to finish it.

With the fall of Memphis and New Orleans early in the war, the Union had the freedom to travel the Mississippi River.

  • Summary of Admiral David Farragut’s unsuccessful attempt to get Vicksburg in June, 1862:
    • Came from New Orleans
    • Passed Vicksburg
    • Landed troops in Louisiana
    • Wanted to build a canal
    • Couldn’t because MS River level was too low
    • Went back to New Orleans

The Battle of Corinth in September of 1862.

    • Gen. Price (CSA) chased Union to Corinth
    • Union attacked
    • Confederates retreated to Ripley
    • Joined with Gen. Van Dorn (CSA) @ Port Gibson
    • Attacked Corinth
    • Van Dorn retreated to Holly Springs

The Confederate gunboat Arkansaswas only in service a total of 23 days.

    • It had continued engine failuresand was eventually destroyed by the crew to keep it from the Union.
battle of vicksburg
Battle of Vicksburg
  • General Ulysses S. Grant’s first attempt to get to Jackson in October of 1862 failed because:
    • Grant (USA) had to return to TN because Gen. Forrest (CSA) cut supply lines in TN & Gen. Van Dorn (CSA) destroyed supplies @ Holly Springs

General Grant and General William Tecumseh Sherman finally were able to get Vicksburg by surrounding the city and enacting a siege to cut off Vicksburg from supplies & reinforcements

  • As a result of the siege, people had to live in cavesto escape the constant shelling.
  • Hunger was such a problem that people resorted to eating mules, rats, or anything else they could find.

Meridian became the next target for Gen. Sherman in 1864because it was strategically located @ the junction of two railroads.

  • Sherman (US) captured and destroyed rail facilities in the Confederacy on his way to Atlanta.
war ends
War Ends
  • The Civil War officially ends in April of 1865.
  • Approximately 27,000 Mississippians die in the Civil War
    • MS lost the greatest percentage of men in the war.
economic costs
Economic Costs
  • Northern wealth increased by 50%.
    • Spent $1.3 billion on war.
  • South lost 60% of wealth.
    • Railroads & industry destroyed.
    • 40% of livestock and cattle killed.
    • Spent over $2 billion on war.
effects on civilians
Effects on Civilians
  • Women
    • Worked outside the home.
    • Some disguised themselves as soldiers & fought in war.

Over 4 million slaves freed.

    • 13th Amendment abolished slavery but gave no rights.


    • Many lost parents.
    • Some served as drummers, musicians, or soldiers in the war.
human costs
Human Costs
  • 600,000 dead
  • Approximately 500,000 wounded
  • South
    • 800,000 fought
    • 450,000 casualties (dead + wounded)
  • North
    • 2.2 million fought
    • 640,000 casualties
soldiers after the war
Soldiers After the War
  • Many had the opportunity to travel for the first time.
  • Joined veterans’ organizations
  • Psychological scars from war
  • Former black soldiers demanded FULL citizenship rights including voting rights.