Chapter 15: The Civil War BeginsSection 1 – Texas Secession The secession of Southern states cause the North and the South to take up arms. Texas becomes one of the early states to secede from the Union and join the Confederacy. Which side had the advantage in the Civil War?
North vs. South in 1861 On a sheet of paper, draw the chart below. After studying the few slides that follow, write in your responses and complete the chart.
TheCivil War(1861-1865)ThroughMaps, Charts,Graphs &Pictures Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
Many Issues Divide the Country • 1861 – Texas joined 10 other states to secede from the Union and form the Confederate States of America (CSA). • This action followed years of long-standing differences between the North and the South.
What Issues did the North & South Disagree On? • Tariffs – taxes on imported goods • Distribution of public lands • States’ Rights – states should have more power over what they do and the federal government should have less power over them. • Most of all – the issue of SLAVERY
Draw a chart as follows. Use the information on the next slides to complete the chart. Comparing the Views of the North and the South
The Republican Party Opposes Slavery • Many Northerners who opposed slavery joined the Republican Party. • Abolitionists – wanted to end ALL slavery. • However, not all Northern whites agreed. The majority of Northern whites were prejudiced against African Americans (free/slave). • BUT…the majority of Northern whites did NOT want slavery to spread westward into new territories.
A Northern/Republican’s View: • Many Northern business leaders and farmers believed that the Southern Democrats were responsible for an economic depression (similar to the Great Depression) of the late 1850s could be brought back by tariffs, a homestead act, and other internal improvements.
Tariffs Republicans/Northerners believed: • Would boost the economy and bring in much needed money to businesses and farmers.
States’ Rights Republicans/Northerners believed: • The federal system (under which the U.S. government was formed) allowed for the sharing of powers between the federal government and state governments. • States should NOT have more powers than they were given in the original U.S. constitution. • States had NO RIGHT to secede from the Union.
A Southern/Democrat’s View: • Opposed to ALL of the North’s ideas because they believed the ideas would ONLY benefit the North – not the South. • Believed that victory for the Republican Party would mean the end of slavery and the Southern way of life.
States’ Rights • [Southern] states are sovereign, meaning they had entered the Union voluntarily and they should be able to leave it voluntarily as they see fit.
Tariffs • As sovereign states, they [Southern states] had the sole authority to set or void tariffs as they saw fit.
Southern States Vow to Secede • During the 1860 presidential election, Southern leaders threatened to secede if a Republican (Abraham Lincoln) was elected. • After Lincoln won the 1860 election, 6 states seceded: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana. • Texans call on Governor Sam Houston to organize a convention to consider secession also.
The Convention Votes on Secession • Sam Houston OPPOSED secession. • Houston did not believe that the South could win a war against the North. • He hoped that Texans would rally against a convention and declare such a convention illegal. • Houston refused to call a special session of the legislature and Texans organized a convention and elected delegates to attend - all without Houston’s approval.
Texas Secession Convention • Met in Austin on January 28, 1861. • Adopted a decree called the “Ordinance of Secession.” Ordinance declared that the U.S. government had abused its power in order to “strike down the interest and prosperity of the people of Texas” …”her citizens are freed from all allegiance to the U.S.” • On February 23, 1861, Texas approved secession from the Union and became the 7th state to secede from the Union and join the Confederacy.
The Confederacy is Formed • Formed at a convention in Montgomery, Alabama on February 4, 1861. • Called the Confederate States of America (CSA).
Confederate Constitution • Drew up a constitution similar to the U.S. constitution, but with some important differences: • 1. states were given MORE power and the federal government was given LESS power; • 2. this constitution guaranteed the protection of slavery.
Leaders of the Confederacy Pres. Jefferson Davis VP Alexander Stevens
Texas Approves the Confederate Constitution • Texas quickly approved the Confederate constitution. • They prepared a Texas Constitution of 1861. • This constitution replaced references to the “U.S. constitution” with “Confederate constitution.”
Houston Removed from Office • Texas Secession Convention ordered all state government leaders to take an oath of loyalty to the Confederacy – Houston refused and is removed as Governor. • Lt. Governor Edward Clark replaced Houston as Governor (he took the oath) • This ends Houston’s career in politics and military – he retires to home in Huntsville and dies in 1863.
Lincoln’s View on States’ Secession • Lincoln said that the Union was “perpetual” (continuing forever) and the Southern states had no right to leave it. • He promised to carry out the law of the land (according to the U.S. constitution) in all states, and • Vowed to preserve the nation at all costs.
The War Begins • It starts at Fort Sumter, SC: • Confederate soldiers take over Fort Sumter • Fort Sumter— a Union outpost in the Charleston harbor • Confederates demand surrender of Fort Sumter • First Shots • Lincoln does not reinforce or evacuate, just sends food • For South, no action would damage sovereignty of Confederacy • Jefferson Davis chooses to turn peaceful secession into war • Orders Confederate soldiers to fire on Sumter April 12, 1861 This is the beginning of the Civil War!
Lincoln’s Generals Winfield Scott Joseph Hooker Ulysses S. Grant Irwin McDowell George McClellan George Meade Ambrose Burnside George McClellan,Again!
The Confederate Generals “Stonewall” Jackson Nathan Bedford Forrest George Pickett Jeb Stuart James Longstreet Robert E. Lee
Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter • The Confederacy Takes Control • Confederate soldiers take over government, military installations • Fort Sumter—Union outpost in Charleston harbor • Confederates demand surrender of Fort Sumter • Lincoln’s Dilemma • Reinforcing fort by force would lead rest of slave states to secede • Evacuating fort would legitimize Confederacy, endangering the Union
Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter • First Shots • Lincoln does not reinforce or evacuate, just sends food • For South, no action would damage sovereignty of Confederacy • Jefferson Davis chooses to turn peaceful secession into war • fires on Sumter April 12, 1861 • Begins the Civil War
Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter • Virginia Secedes • Fall of Fort Sumter unites North; volunteers rush to enlist • Virginia unwilling to fight the South; secedes from Union • This is very important, because Virginia is the most populated state in the South, and Robert E. Lee is from Virginia • antislavery western counties secede from VA, creating the state of West Virginia • Three more states secede; border states remain in Union • Border states are very important. • Lincoln will have to make political decisions that will not agitate the border states.
Americans Expect a Short War • Union and Confederate Strategies • Union advantages: soldiers, factories, food, and railroads • Confederate advantages: cotton profits, generals, motivation • Anaconda plan: Union strategy to conquer South • blockade Southern ports • divide Confederacy in two in west • capture Richmond, Confederate capital • Confederate strategy: defense, invade North if opportunity arises
Overviewofthe North’sCivil WarStrategy: “Anaconda”Plan
Americans Expect a Short War • Bull Run • Bull Run—first battle, near Washington, D.C.; Confederate victory • This battle shows both sides that the war will not be short. • Thomas J. Jackson called Stonewall Jackson for firm stand in battle
Union Armies in the West • Protecting Washington, D.C. • After Bull Run, Lincoln calls for 1 million additional soldiers • Appoints General George McClellan to lead Army of the Potomac • Forts Henry and Donelson • General Ulysses S. Grant—brave, tough, decisive commander in West • Feb. 1862, Grant captures Confederate Forts Henry, Donelson
Union Armies in the West • Shiloh • March 1862, Confederate troops surprise Union soldiers at Shiloh • Grant counterattacks; Confederates retreat; thousands dead, wounded • Shiloh teaches preparation needed, Confederacy vulnerable in West • Farragut on the Lower Mississippi • David G. Farragut commands fleet that takes New Orleans, April 1862 • Why is New Orleans an important victory for the North • takes Baton Rouge, Natchez
Pretend that you have been given the task of setting the odds of winning or losing the Civil War. Look at the advantages and disadvantages for both sides and make a prediction and explain your prediction
The War for the Capitals • “On to Richmond” • McClellan waits to attack Richmond; drills troops for 5 months [Visual] • Spring 1862, Robert E. Lee takes command of Southern army • Lee, McClellan fight Seven Days’ Battle; Union leaves Richmond area • Lee shows the advantage of military leadership for the Confederacy. • The confederacy in the east is very successful, even though they are outnumber, and outmatched
The War for the Capitals • Antietam • Lee wins the Second Battle of Bull Run; marches into Maryland !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! • Lee, McClellan clash at Antietam—bloodiest single-day battle in American History!!!!!!! • Battle a standoff; Confederates retreat; McClellan does not pursue • Lincoln fires McClellan
Soldiers Suffer on Both Sides • Lives on the Lines • Lack of sanitation, personal hygiene lead to disease in camp • Soldiers only required to wash their hands and face once a day, and bath once a week. • Diets are unvaried, limited, unappealing