Nationalism vs. Imperialism The changed map of Europe and the Middle East. The Mandate System From left, British Prime Minister Lloyd George, Italy's Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, France's Georges Clemenceau and President Woodrow Wilson at the Paris peace conference in 1919 at the end of World War I
Ideas and concepts can change the world. The concepts of nationalism and imperialism were of major significance to the world of 1919. The clearest examples of the importance of these concept were the changing map of Europe, the shifting borders Middle East, and the introduction of the League of Nation’s Mandate System.
Define Imperialism for me… Remember that map of the British Empire? By 1914 there were two independent countries left in Africa: Liberia and Ethiopia
Define Nationalism for me… Of nationalism George Orwell wrote: "The abiding purpose of every nationalist is to secure more power and more prestige, not for himself but for the nation or other unit in which he has chosen to sink his own individuality."
The Changed Map of Europe • Nationalism is a force to be recognized. Did not a Serb Nationalist ‘start’ World War One? • Wilson recognizes (see Fourteen Points) need for self-determination and a major revision of Europe’s frontiers. Let’s have a look at a map of Europe in 1919, shall we? If they talk about ‘successor states’ on the exam, don’t worry, They’re just talking about the ‘countries’ created by the crumble of empires after WWI.
Remember Europe in 1914? I can see the difference. can you see the difference? Tell me who the winners are… But what about…
Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia One million Poles in Czechoslovakia Germans in the Polish Corridor 50/50 make up of Alsace-Lorraine I guess none of these people get to exercise self determination. Why not? How do the winners and losers relate to our concepts of nationalism and Imperialism? But what about…the losers? Let’s have a look at a map of the Middle East in 1914, shall we?
After World War I, the French and British draw the borders of the modern Middle East, and the League of Nations sanctions their domination of the region.
The Mandate System The League of Nations Mandate System In theory, the Mandate system had the benevolent intention of preparing the "natives" of various regions for self government. In practice, the granting of mandates often represented nothing more than the granting of spoils to the different victorious allied governments. (The basis of the mandate system was Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, which gave broad authority to the mandate powers regarding preparation for self-rule). (The above is from http://www.mideastweb.org.) "Everyone understood at the time that this was a thinly disguised new form of colonialism...," says Zachary Lockman, professor of Middle East history at New York University. "The British and French had no thought of going anywhere anytime soon, and fully intended to remain in control of these territories for the indefinite future.
Well team, a rose by any other name would smell as sweet… Excellent multiple choice questions… Take from… Germany - Treaty of Versailles Austria - “ “ St. Germain Hungary - “ “ Trianon Bulgaria - “ “ Neuilly Turkey - “ “ Sevres* *Keep this one in mind. Show off when speaking to the new Changed map of the Middle East. Let’s Google ‘Wikipedia Mandate System’
Well folks, so ends our story.,, In 1919 World War One was over, but the concepts of nationalism and imperialism remained. The ‘big three’ allied powers ensured that despite the ‘acceptance’ of self-determination, their empires would grow. The obvious proof of this was the Treaty of Sevres which would see the Ottoman Empire dismembered, and through the League of Nations’ Mandate System, distributed to the French and British. Further, nationalist calls were answered; especially if they came from within the borders of an Empire that had lost World War One. Due to the influence of nationalism, now called self-determination, and imperialism, now replaced by the Mandate System, the maps of Europe and the Middle East after World War One had indeed changed completely.