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Nationalism and Imperialism. -Key Concepts-. I. Nationalism. Its Cultural Roots Revival of National Languages Special National Mission The Decline of Romantic Nationalism Tough-Minded Realism after 1848. I. Nationalism (cont). Tough-Minded Realism after 1848

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i nationalism
I. Nationalism
  • Its Cultural Roots
  • Revival of National Languages
  • Special National Mission
  • The Decline of Romantic Nationalism
  • Tough-Minded Realism after 1848
i nationalism cont
I. Nationalism (cont)
  • Tough-Minded Realism after 1848

--The Cultural and Intellectual Climate

--State-focused politics

--The Dominance of “Realpolitik”—expedience and power

  • Creation of the Modern Nation-State System, often through war
ii germany a case study
II. Germany: A Case Study
  • Prevailing Conservatism in 1850

-- “Junkers”

--Romantic vision of war

--Parliament rejected the Military Budget of 1862

ii germany a case study cont
II. Germany: A Case Study (cont)
  • “Realpolitik Personified”: Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)

--Background

--Flexible and Pragmatic

--Hated Liberalism, Democracy and Socialism

--Manipulated Liberalism and Socialism to increase the power of the Prussian state

ii germany a case study cont6
II. Germany: A Case Study (cont)
  • Steps toward unification of Germany

--Austro-Prussian War (1866)

--Battle of Sadowa

--New North German Confederation

--Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)

--Releases Nationalistic frenzy

--Upsets European Balance of Power

iii the power of competitive nationalism
III. The Power of Competitive Nationalism
  • Competition pursued in almost all areas of activity
  • Each nation refused to recognize any interests other than its own
  • Each nation was determined to prove its inherent historic superiority
iii the power of competitive nationalism cont
III. The Power of Competitive Nationalism (cont)
  • International Application of Social Darwinism
  • Remaining Nationalistic “Hot Spots”

--Russia and the Crimean War (1853-1856)

--Sergei Witte and modernization

--Ireland and Home Rule

iv imperialism
IV. Imperialism
  • Anti-imperialist sentiment before the 1870’s
  • Mostly economic penetration before this point
  • Assumption: Costs exceed profits from colonialism
  • Colonies would sooner or later demand independence
  • Countries absorbed with domestic turmoil
iv imperialism cont
IV. Imperialism (cont)
  • The Great Age of Imperialism (1880-1914)

--Africa

--South Pacific Islands

--Southeast Asia

--China

--Central Asia

v causes of this imperialistic enthusiasm
V. Causes of this Imperialistic Enthusiasm
  • Missionary Activity and the Anti-Slavery Movement

--Dr. David Livingstone

  • Scientific Curiosity
  • A New Breed of Adventurers

--Carl Peters

v causes of this imperialistic enthusiasm cont
V. Causes of this Imperialistic Enthusiasm (cont)

--Cecil Rhodes

--Boer War (1899-1902)

  • International Prestige through a Darwinian Struggle
  • National Security and Naval Bases

--Alfred T. Mahan

vi economic motivations for imperialistic enthusiasm
VI. Economic Motivations for Imperialistic Enthusiasm
  • Belief that new markets must be found to prevent financial downturns

--revived mercantilism

  • Source of Raw Materials
  • Target for Excess Capital
  • Economic Benefits of Imperialism were far less beneficial than assumed
vi economic motivations cont
VI. Economic Motivations (cont)
  • European countries did not invest primarily in colonies

--Only 10% of French investments in their colonies—only 5% for the Germans

  • Trade followed the same pattern

--Only 25% of British Trade with its colonies—only 11% for the French and .4% for the Germans

  • European countries did the greatest volume of business with each other
  • Most important economic motivation: raw materials
  • Economics was thus an illusory stimulus
vii the fusion of nationalism and imperialism
VII. The Fusion of Nationalism and Imperialism
  • Huge Power Gap between European and non-European states

-- “Gunboat Diplomacy”

--Battle of Omdurman (1898)

--The Second Opium War (1856-1860)

vii the fusion of nationalism and imperialism cont
VII. The Fusion of Nationalism and Imperialism (cont)
  • European Rivalries intensified by imperialism
  • India: The Pride of British Imperialism
  • The Growth of Popular Imperial Literature

--Rudyard Kipling

--Gunga Din

--Ernest Psichari

viii the fusion of racism and imperialism
VIII. The Fusion of Racism and Imperialism
  • Social Darwinism: “Fit” versus “Unfit” Races
  • “The White Man’s Burden”
  • The Benefits of this “Burden”

--sati

  • Disrespect and condescension toward indigenous peoples and cultures
viii the fusion of racism and imperialism cont
VIII. The Fusion of Racism and Imperialism (cont)
  • The Congo Free State in Africa: A Personal Fief for King Leopold II of Belgium (1884-1908)
  • Exploitation of colonial possessions

--The Dutch “Culture System”

ix criticism of imperialism
IX. Criticism of Imperialism
  • The Marxist Critique of Imperialism

--J.A. Hobson’s Imperialism (1902)

  • Need of the Rich to Drain off Surplus Capital
  • Opportunity to Divert Attention from the need for Domestic Reform
ix criticism of imperialism cont
IX. Criticism of Imperialism (cont)
  • Moral condemnation of Imperialism

--Joseph Conrad, The Heart of Darkness

--George Orwell, Burmese Days (1933)

--British Raj

-- “one long struggle not to be laughed at.”

  • Failure of the Western Liberal Tradition
x colonial responses to western imperialism
X. Colonial Responses to Western Imperialism
  • Initial Response: Attempt to Drive the Imperialists away
  • “Traditionalists” who continue to resist in any way that they can
  • “Modernizers” who learned western ways in order to later use them against imperialists
x colonial responses to western imperialism cont
X. Colonial Responses to Western Imperialism (cont)
  • Example of Modernizers: Meiji in Japan
  • Traditionalists and Modernizers struggled first with each other
  • Imperial Rule was built on a foundation of sand

--Ho Chi Minh

--Liberalism, Nationalism and Marxist Socialism as colonial weapons