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Nationalism, Imperialism, and Resistance

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  1. 18 Nationalism, Imperialism, and Resistance

  2. Nationalism, Imperialism and Resistance • French Revolution, Napoleon & Nationalism • French government based on contract with the nation--a political group--not with a ruler • French armies took their nationalism and Code Napoleon on their European conquests • European nationalism a response to French dominance and French power

  3. Nationalism • The Periphery of Western Europe • Nationalism strongest on edges of Europe • Two faces of nationalism • Positive: Empowers masses of nation • Negative: Leads to conflicts such as World War I • Nationalism in Latin America was “top down” • Canadian nationalism prevails over regionalism • U. S. nationalism tied to constitutional oath

  4. Nationalism • Italy and Germany • Neither unified before 1870 • Composed of culturally similar but politically separate small states before 1870 • Regional leaders in both countries sought unification to obtain national power • Italy had common language and borders, Germany not as well situated

  5. Nationalism

  6. Nationalism • Italy and Germany [cont.] • Giuseppe Mazzini provide vision for Italy • Formed Young Italy in 1831 • Camillo Cavour provided political power and alliances from Peidmont • Garibaldi added Kingdom of the Two Sicilies • Victor Emmanuel II leads unified Italy

  7. Nationalism • Italy and Germany [cont.] • Otto von Bismarck of Prussia unified Germany • Strong cultural and economic basis for country • Unifying folklore from work of Grimm brothers • Economic ties from 1828 zollverein (customs union) • Unification achieved by wars (“Blood & Iron”) • Defeated Austria (1866) and France (1871) • Southern German states voted to join

  8. Nationalism • The Rise of Zionism • The movement to create a Jewish state • Success of European nationalism transform prayer for Israel into a movement for it • Nationalism prompts persecution of outsiders • Dreyfus Affair leads to Jewish fears in Europe • Theodore Herzl the founder and visionary • Not all Jews supported the hope of Israel

  9. The Quest for Empire • Nationalism led to wars of unification and willingness to control affairs of others to benefit the “nation” • British taxes on India took money out of Indian economy for British home treasury • British tariffs harsh on Indian textiles during early industrialization • Trade rivals for Britain by early 1800s

  10. Nationalism

  11. Nationalism

  12. The Quest for Empire • Fierce economic competition from US, Germany and France • Trade and the related desire to control territory led to creation of empires • By 1914: 85% of earth’s surface controlled by Europe or nations of European ancestry • Economics of nominally independent countries under European control

  13. The Quest for Empire • Western European power based on “dual revolutions” of political & industrial change • Success led to belief in superiority over those parts of the world that had not achieved gains of the “dual revolutions” • Attitude often carried racial overtones to reinforce belief of superiority

  14. The Quest for Empire • The Ottoman Empire, 1829-76 • Was close to Europe and growing weaker as demonstrated by Crimean War (1854-6) • Social organization on the “millet system” • People organized by religious group under religious leader to enforce religious laws and collect taxes in contrast to European practice of unified people • After Crimean defeat, the Ottomans pass Humayun edict of 1856 with “equality under the law”

  15. The Quest for Empire • Southeast Asia & Indonesia, 1795-1880 • Earlier colonial competition continues • Britain claims Malaya & Burma • France conquers Indochina by 1893 • Dutch take Indonesia and institute Kulturstelsel, an exploitive agricultural system that made peasants devote 1/5 of land to cash rather than personal food crops

  16. Nationalism

  17. Nationalism

  18. The Quest for Empire • India, 1858-1914 • British defeat French for control of India, 1763 • British East India Company administers the colony • Increased tax collection & manipulated tariffs • Indian economy structured for British benefit • 1857 mutiny ends East India Company control • Independence movement had to find balance of positive and negative aspects of British rule

  19. The Quest for Empire • China, 1800-1914 • Manchus colonized extensively & felt invulnerable in face of the West • Internal problems from 1800 • Population growth but no government response • Did possess production for export • Opium supplied by West to pay for goods

  20. The Quest for Empire • China, 1800-1914 [cont.] • The Opium Wars • 1839-42 war gains extraterritoriality for Britain • Refusal to grant diplomatic recognition leads to second war, 1856-60 • Taiping Rebellion (began 1850) one measure of Chinese disorganization • Weakness confirmed when Japan defeats China in 1894-5 war over Korea

  21. The Quest for Empire • China, 1800-1914 [cont.] • The Boxer Rebellion, 1898-1900 • Boxers were nationalists seeking to drive Europeans out of China • Western victory results in more concessions from China to the West • Promoters of modernization in China opposed by Empress Cixi who served as regent to emperor • Sun Yat-sen leads nationalist revolt to end Manchu dynasty in 1911

  22. Africa, 1652-1912 • South Africa, 1652-1910 • Dutch settlement in 1652 • British gain control from Napoleonic Wars • Abolish slavery, 1834, but claim best land • Restrict vote but pass Masters and Servants Act • Dutch Boer Trek to avoid British customs • Zulu War to resist British control • South African importance less after Suez opens

  23. Nationalism

  24. Nationalism

  25. Africa, 1652-1912 • Egypt, 1798-1882 • Muhammad Ali (1769-1849) controls Egypt after French leave and Ottomans are ineffective • Expands Egyptian power to Sudan and Arabia • Ali a moderate on religion but faces Wahabism • Son Ismail agrees with French to build Suez Canal • Modernization policy had mixed results • Egyptian power underscores Ottoman weakness

  26. Africa, 1652-1912 • Algeria, 1830-71 • Part of weakening Ottoman empire • French attack Algeria as center of piracy in 1830 and then claim control of country • Meet extensive resistance from Muslim Brotherhood • Numerous Europeans migrate to Algeria and take best farmland • European minority (13%) controls majority Muslim population by 20th century

  27. Africa, 1652-1912 • Islamic Religious Revival • Revival in Sahel region (edge of Sahara) • West African revivals • Uthman dan Fodio in Hausaland • al-Hajj Umar in Massina • Samori Toure on Niger River • East Africa • Muhammad Ahmed, a mahdi in Sudan

  28. Africa, 1652-1912 • Islamic Religious Revival [cont.]] • Western Orientation in West Africa • Sierra Leone a haven for freed slaves • Liberia created by American Colonization Society • New European export communities • Cotton production on Niger River • Europeans stay along coast while Africans maintain inland contacts and production • River transport with short stretches of railroad • Europeans seek greater control from the 1880s

  29. Africa, 1652-1912 • Europeans & the Scramble for Africa • Knowledge of Africa provided by exploration • Needed for commerce, missions, & science • Most famous is the Stanley-Livingston episode • Berlin Conference of 1884 prevents open competition among European powers • African resistance to European claims met with force

  30. Africa, 1652-1912 • Europeans & the Scramble for Africa [cont] • Labor Issues: Coercion and Unionization • 1913 Native Lands Act excludes Africans from 87% of South African land • Need for miners in South African gold and diamond mines leads to low pay and the break up of families that can’t afford to move to the mines • Trade union membership restricted to white workers • Race trumped free market capitalism and labor solidarity

  31. Gender Relationships in Colonization • Sexual liaisons with local colonial women ended with arrival of European women • Create boundaries between Europeans & locals • European families claim role as models of highest values of imperial country • No female solidarity between local & Europeans • Some adoption of European models in colony

  32. Anti-Colonial Revolts, 1857-1914 • Benefits of empire (jobs, e.g.) accompanied by resentment at discrimination • Colonials initially sought restoration of idealized, independent past • Later movements sought freedom within setting of modern institutions • Young Turks • African National Congress (South Africa)

  33. Japan: From Isolation to Equality, 1867-1914 • The End of the Shogunate • Japanese isolation ends with Commodore Perry • Regional leaders decide to remove Shogun-- administered Japan in name of the emperor and stood in way of modernization • Meiji Restoration began as regional revolt & ended with confiscation of Shogun’s land and restoration of direct rule by the emperor assisted by daimyo

  34. Japan: From Isolation to Equality, 1867-1914 • Policies of the Meiji Government • Seek knowledge of world with two year tour • Import advisors in industry & agricultural • 130 foreigners in government by 1879 • Restructure Government • Daimyo give lands to emperor & become governors • War with those who won’t • Create western style army using German model

  35. Japan: From Isolation to Equality, 1867-1914 • Policies of the Meiji Government [cont.] • Restructuring the Economy • Revitalized agriculture yields landlord profits for investment in commerce and industry • Government finances early industrial ventures • Urbanization • Existing cities were regional capitals • New cities combined old businesses and entertainments with new westernized sectors

  36. Nationalism

  37. Japan: From Isolation to Equality, 1867-1914 • Policies of the Meiji Government [cont.] • Cultural and Educational Change • Westernization in fashion, calendar & measurement • Extensive study of western writings including Mill and Spencer • Centralized, compulsory education • Ninety per cent of boys and girls attend school by 1905

  38. Japan: From Isolation to Equality, 1867-1914 • Policies of the Meiji Government [cont.] • Gender Relations • Restoration of emperor reinforced male control of household • Women & minors barred from political activities • Women gain vote after World War II • Women have few legal rights after 1898 Civil Code • Goal of women’s education was to create “good wives and wise mothers”

  39. Japan: From Isolation to Equality, 1867-1914 • Policies of the Meiji Governemnt [cont.] • War, Colonialism & Equality in the Family of Nations • Seek control of tariffs--done by 1911 • Expansion into Korea & Manchuria makes Japan dominant East Asian power • Equality with Europe in 1902 alliance with Britain • Defeat of Russia in 1905 underscores possession of “great power” military • Annex Korea, 1910

  40. Nationalism and Imperialism • Nationalism instilled pride and hope but also competition for resources & prestige • Dual revolutions tie nations and peoples more closely together • Imperialism claim to benefit those colonized but meet resentment